Multiple Choice

____1.What did Italy, Germany, and Japan have in common in the 1930s?
a.They overturned traditional governments and established democracies.
b.They were economic giants and together controlled world trade.
c.They sought to solve their nations’ problems through conquest.
d.They angered other nations by their persecution of the Jews.

____2.Which was part of American policy during the early years of World War II?
a.denouncing Britain and France for declaring war on Germany
b.following a foreign policy of appeasement
c.remaining neutral while making war supplies available to Britain
d.terminating all trade agreements with warring nations

____3.What prompted the United States to enter the war in 1941?
a.the imprisonment of Jews in German concentration camps
b.the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
c.the pact that the Soviet Union signed with Germany
d.Germany’s invasion of the Rhineland

____4.Which of the following best describes “code talkers”?
a.aides to Roosevelt and Churchill who relayed messages between the leaders
b.German Americans who served as translators for the Allies
c.women who worked as airfield control tower operators
d.Navajo radio operators who helped secure communications in the Pacific

____5.Which of the following took place on D-Day?
a.the last fight to get American supplies across the Atlantic to Britain
b.the first British and American landings in North Africa
c.the start of the Allied invasion of Italy
d.the landing of Allied forces on France’s Normandy coast

____6.  In what part of the world were the battles of the Coral Sea, Midway, and Guadalcanal fought?
a.the Atlanticc.the Asian mainland
b.the Pacificd.the Italian peninsula

____7.Which of the following best describes Japanese kamikazes?
a.one-man submarines that attacked American ships at Pearl Harbor
b.guerrilla fighters who hid in caves on the Pacific islands
c.bomb-loaded planes whose pilots deliberately crashed into targets
d.guards at the prisoner-of-war camps operated by the Japanese

____8.What finally brought an end to World War II?
a.a massive Soviet invasion of the Japanese islands
b.the appeasement of Germany
c.a U.S. naval blockade of Japan
d.the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

____9.  What is the term used to describe Nazi Germany’s systematic annihilation of
                     European Jews?
a.blitzkrieg        c.Kristallnacht
b.the Holocaustd.the Manhattan Project

____10.Who was tried at the Nuremberg Trials?
a.Japanese generals accused of war crimes
b.Soviet soldiers who had helped capture Berlin
c.members of the War Refugee Board
d.Nazi leaders accused of crimes against humanity

____11.During the 1930s, Hitler, Mussolini, and the military leaders of Japan
a.had a monopoly on world trade.
b.began invading neighboring lands.
c.organized the League of Nations.
d.bolstered national pride by calling for free elections.

____12.During the early years of World War II, the United States
a.organized several peace talks between the Allies and the Axis powers.
b.stopped trading with all nations at war.
c.tried to remain neutral while supplying weapons to Britain and France.
d.sent military and economic aid to all nations at war.

____13.Americans fought to keep German submarines from isolating Great Britain in
a.the Battle of Midway.c.the Battle of the Coral Sea.
b.the Battle of the Atlantic.d.the Battle of Stalingrad.

____14.The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
a.prompted the United States to enter the war.
b.marked the final Japanese victory of the war.
c.did not cause significant damage to American warships or planes.
d.led directly to the liberation of the Philippines.

____15.V-E Day, May 8, 1945, marked
a.the start of the largest landing by sea in history.
b.the Allied attack on North Africa.
c.the end of the war in Europe.
d.the end of the war in the Pacific.

____16.With the words “I shall return,” General Douglas MacArthur promised to come back to
a.the Philippines.c.Pearl Harbor.
b.France.             d.the Soviet Union.

____17.An important strategy used by American forces in the Pacific was
a.blitzkrieg.          c.kamikaze attacks.
b.island-hopping.d.the Bataan Death March.

____18.After the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki,
a.the Soviet Union allied itself with Japan.
b.the League of Nations was created to end global war.
c.the Allied powers divided Japan into peace-keeping zones.
d.Japan accepted American terms for surrender.

____19.In 1935, the Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws to
a.send political prisoners to labor camps.
b.strip Jews of their German citizenship.
c.end the requirement that Jews carry identity cards.
d.outlaw the activities of Communists in Poland.

____20.People considered by the Nazis to be “undesirable” were
a.imprisoned in concentration camps.
b.forced to join Einsatzgruppen.
c.offered automatic refuge in the United States.
d.placed in war refugee camps.

____21.Why did President Franklin Roosevelt create the Office of War Mobilization?
a.to replace the Office of Price Administration
b.to centralize agencies dealing with war production
c.to build up wartime morale
d.to reduce the government’s role in war production

____22.  How did the government seek to guarantee profits for businesses engaged in
                      war production?
a.by rationing scarce resources
b.by freezing prices of all consumer goods
c.by establishing the “cost-plus” system for military contracts
d.by reducing deficit spending

____23.Which of the following was an example of deficit spending during the war?
a.raising taxes to finance government programs
b.using a “pay-as-you-go” method of collecting income taxes
c.freezing prices to head off inflation
d.using borrowed money to finance war production

____24.What prevented Americans from spending the high wages they earned in wartime jobs?
a.shortages of consumer items
b.fear of going into debt
c.desire to build up savings after the hardships of the Depression
d.inflated prices for consumer goods

____25.What was the overriding goal of the Office of War Information?
a.to introduce mass production techniques into shipbuilding
b.to develop codes that the enemy could not decipher
c.to boost morale and patriotism on the home front
d.to set up a system of rationing

____26.Which of the following best describes women who went to work during wartime?
a.young and unmarried
b.primarily African American
c.white and middle class
d.of all ages and ethnic and economic backgrounds

____27.In general, how did women’s status compare with that of men in the war production
                            work force?
a.Women were paid less for the same work.
b.Women were paid more for the same work.
c.Women were granted more seniority.
d.Women received equal work for equal pay.

____28.Which statement best describes the effect the war had on racial conditions in the
                            United States?
a.It highlighted the injustice of racism in the country.
b.It brought about an end to the Jim Crow system.
c.It improved race relations in the northern and western cities.
d.It improved conditions only for Mexicans and Native Americans.

____29.Which was true of  the North during the war years?
a.The Jim Crow system was as strong as it was in the South.
b.There was no legal or actual segregation.
c.African Americans faced discrimination in employment, housing, and education.
d.African Americans received preferential treatment from government agencies.

____30.What led the government to evacuate Japanese Americans from the West Coast?
a.long-held prejudice, and fears inflamed by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
b.terrorist attacks by immigrants living on the West Coast
c.fear for the safety of Japanese Americans on the West Coast
d.refusal of the Nisei to accept United States citizenship

____31.The United States began to emerge from the depression as a result of
a.freezing rents and prices.
b.producing goods for the Allied forces.
c.increasing production of consumer goods. 
d.allocating raw materials.

____32.Henry Kaiser contributed to wartime production by
a.creating new markets overseas.
b.organizing the War Production Board.
c.using mass production techniques to build Liberty ships.
d.converting automobile plants to aircraft production.

____33.Financing the war with borrowed money was an example of
a.the cost-plus system.c.the Gross National Product.
b.deficit spending.       d.wartime conversion.

____34.On the home front, popular culture was characterized by
a.weariness and low spirits.c.resentment and hostility.
b.pessimism and fear.         d.patriotism and high morale.

____35.The goal of wartime rationing was
a.to speed up war production.      c.to ensure business profits.
b.to distribute scarce items fairly.d.to end racial discrimination.

____36.  Campaigns to collect scrap metal, kitchen fats, and other materials were promoted
                       mainly to
a.keep the people on the home front actively involved in the war effort.
b.create paying jobs for children and older adults.
c.distribute such materials without rationing.
d.lend these supplies to Great Britain and France.

____37.During wartime, women in the work force were generally paid
a.the same wages as men doing the same job.
b.higher wages than men, to cover child care costs.
c.lower wages than men doing the same jobs.
d.less than they had earned during the Depression.

____38.The government assumed that after the war most working women would
a.go back to school to learn job skills.           c.switch to part-time work.
b.become full-time homemakers again.        d.continue in their jobs.

____39.The “Double V” campaign
a.encouraged workers to join labor unions.
b.promoted victory in war and racial equality at home.
c.tried to help keep their jobs after the war ended.
d.motivated Americans to plant gardens to grow their own vegetables.

____40.On the home front during the war years,
a.racial discrimination in employment practices ended.
b.the Jim Crow system was banned by executive order.
c.segregation ended in northern cities.
d.African Americans took direct action to promote racial equality.



Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.George Marshall          e.Joseph Stalin
b.Harry S. Truman           f.Benito Mussolini
c.Dwight D. Eisenhowerg.Hideki Tojo
d.Winston Churchill         h.Adolph Hitler

____41.Fascist party leader who became dictator of Italy

____42.leader of the Nazi party in Germany

____43.leader of the Soviet Union during World War II

____44.British prime minister during World War II

____45.American general who commanded Allied forces in the D-Day invasion

____46.top American general and Army Chief of Staff during World War II

____47.general who became prime minister of Japan

____48.President who authorized the dropping of the atomic bomb during World War II

IDENTIFYING KEY TERMS, PEOPLE, AND PLACES:Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.blitzkrieg         e.appeasement
b.GIs                   f.Atlantic Charter
c.Lend-Lease Act     g.Holocaust
d.fascism           h.Manhattan Project

____49.The term ____ refers to a political philosophy that places the importance of the nation
                             above the value of the individual.

____50.In the 1930s, Britain and France tried to prevent war by following a policy of ____, giving
                            in to some of Germany’s demands.

____51.The term ____ means “lightning war” and refers to Germany’s tactic of striking quickly
                            and deeply into enemy territory.

____52.The ____ authorized the President to aid any nation whose defense was seen as vital
                             to American security.

____53.The ____, principles agreed to by Roosevelt and Churchill, would later form the basis
                             for the United Nations.

____54.During World War II, American soldiers called themselves ____.

____55.The term ____ refers to Nazi Germany’s systematic annihilation of European Jews.

____56.Roosevelt organized the top secret ____ to develop the atomic bomb.

IDENTIFYING KEY TERMS, PEOPLE, AND PLACES - Match each item with the correct statement below.
a.war bondse.“Double V” campaign
b.wildcat strikes  f.Liberty ships
c.seniority    g.Rosie the Riveter
d.victory gardensh.internment camps

____57.vessels built in the United States that usually carried troops or war supplies

____58.work stoppages organized by workers and not endorsed by unions

____59.government savings notes bought by Americans to help finance World War II

____60.home projects that raised vegetables during World War II

____61.image used to attract women to the wartime work force

____62.status derived from length of service in a job

____63.effort launched to win both the war overseas against the Axis powers and the war at
                            home for racial equality

____64.centers in remote inland areas where Japanese Americans were confined during World
                             War II

IDENTIFYING KEY TERMS, PEOPLE, AND PLACES - Match each item with the correct statement below.

a.wildcat strikese.victory gardens
b.Office of War Information     f.Rosie the Riveter
c.Nisei g.Office of War Mobilization
d.war bonds      h.internment camps

____65.Japanese Americans born in the United States of parents who had emigrated from

____66.government savings notes bought by Americans to help finance World War II

____67.work stoppages organized by workers and not endorsed by unions

____68.image used to attract women to the wartime work force

____69.home project that raised about one third of the nation’s vegetables during World War II

____70.superagency established to centralize agencies dealing with war production

____71.agency set up to boost Americans’ patriotism and sense of participation in the war effort

____72.centers in remote inland areas where Japanese Americans were confined during
                            World War II

73. Recognizing Cause and Effect  -What factors motivated Italian, German, and Japanese
                    leaders to pursue aggressive foreign policies in the 1930s?

74.Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment - Do you think the Allies would have won World War II
    without the aid of the United States? Explain.

75.Making Comparisons - What similar strategies did leaders in Germany, Italy, and Japan
  `         use to transform their nations into strong world powers?

76.Identifying Alternatives - What were some alternatives to using the atomic bomb against
   Japan? Do you think any of these alternatives would have been better than the action taken?
   Explain why or why not.

77.Identifying Assumptions -The Supreme Court ruled in Korematsu  v. United States that the
    wartime internment of Japanese Americans was justified because of “the military urgency
    of the situation.” What assumptions might have influenced the Court’s decision?

78.Distinguishing False from Accurate Images - Was the image of Rosie the Riveter a false
    or accurate representation of women doing war production work? Explain your answer.

79.Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment - How do you think World War II might have changed
    American women’s attitudes toward their roles in the workplace?

80.Which countries remained neutral during World War II?

81.How did Britain’s location help that nation to avoid a German invasion?

82.Why might it have been a mistake for Germany to have broken its pact and invaded the
                    Soviet Union?

83.Which parts of Europe were under Axis control?

84.How did geography help Great Britain remain free of Axis control?

85.What status did Spain, Sweden, and Turkey have during World War II?

ANALYZING A DOCUMENT -  The following excerpt comes from a letter that the Chief of Naval Personnel sent to U.S. Navy commandants in June 1945.  It deals with a new order to send black and white recruits to the same training camps.  Study the excerpt below and then answer the following questions below.

...[The] Recruiting and Induction Service has been instructed to assign Negroes to Recruit Training Centers on the same basis as whites.  The purpose of this change of policy is to obtain more complete utilization of all personnel and facilities.

It is recognized that this policy is at variance with some individual ideas and attitudes.  However, at activities where similar experiences have been encountered and met with intelligent and forceful planning and leadership, the results have been satisfactory....

86.Why was the policy changed?

87.To what “individual ideas and attitudes” do you think the writer was referring?

88.How do you know that the writer of the letter expected the new policy to cause problems?

89.What did the writer suggest would solve these problems?


90. Between which two consecutive years did production of passenger cars undergo the steepest drop?

91.About how many military aircraft were produced in 1944?

92.What was the general relationship between auto production and military aircraft production in the war years?

93.In which year shown were the fewest passenger cars produced?

94.About how many military aircraft were produced in 1943?

95.How were the trends shown in the two graphs related?



Use this poster showing a man in the military and a farmer during World War II to answer the following questions below.

96.  What was the main idea expressed by the poster?

97.  According to the poster, in what way were overalls like a military uniform?

98.  How does the slogan “Food For Freedom,” found in the circle in the bottom right corner of the poster, relate to the poster’s main message?

99.  What assumption do you think the artist made about farmers in creating this poster?


73.Many Germans and Italians resented the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Germans felt humiliated by the treaty’s harsh terms, and Italians felt they had been shortchanged. Japanese military leaders resented their dependence on other nations for resources such as petroleum and iron. In addition, all three nations viewed aggression as a means to solving economic problems.

74.Students will probably answer that the Allies would have lost the war without the United States since the Axis Powers had conquered much of Europe by the time the United States entered the war. Britain, though still unconquered, had suffered heavy damage, and might have been isolated by Germany without the actions of American warships. American forces helped turn the tide in North Africa and were instrumental in reclaiming both Europe and the Pacific islands. Students may also argue that Americans were responsible for the atomic bomb, which forced the surrender of Japan.

75.Leaders in Germany, Italy, and Japan transformed their nations into strong national powers by building up the military and by invading, occupying, or annexing neighboring lands. All used aggression to bolster national pride and to improve their economies.

76.Alternatives included launching a massive invasion of Japan, using a naval blockade or continued conventional bombing, softening insistence that Japan’s surrender be unconditional, and demonstrating the bomb’s power on a deserted island. Students who think the bomb was a better alternative to any of these will probably argue that it quickly and definitively ended the war and the killing of Americans, and that it may have taken fewer Japanese lives than continued conventional warfare. Others may argue that dropping the bomb on Japanese cities was not the best strategy because it resulted in the deaths of many thousands of civilians, or that the second bomb was unnecessary. Accept any well-reasoned argument.

77.The decision seemed to assume that Japanese Americans were more likely to be spies for the Japanese than were other Americans. A related assumption was that at least some Japanese Americans might side with their country of ancestry. The same assumption did not seem to be made of other groups to the same degree. German and Italian Americans, for example, were not sent to internment camps.

78.Students may argue that the image was accurate in depicting a woman in a defense-related job while men were away in the military. Others may argue the image was misleading in depicting Rosie the Riveter as young and white, when in reality, women of all ages, ethnic, and economic groups worked in the defense industry.

79.Because so many American women worked in defense-related jobs during World War II, they may have thought of themselves as capable, adaptable, and successful in a wider field than was previously available to them. Many women found new satisfactions in these jobs, including that of earning their own money. While some women wanted to continue working outside the home after the war, others thought of these jobs as temporary emergency measures.


80.Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, and Turkey

81.Because Great Britain is an island, it could not be invaded by land.

82.By attacking the Soviet Union, Germany had to fight a war on both an eastern and a western front.

83.With the exception of Britain and six neutral countries, the Axis Powers controlled all of Europe, from France to the western Soviet Union.

84.Because Britain is an island, the Axis Powers could not invade it by land.

85.They were all neutral.

86.It is being changed for the sake of efficiency--to make better use of the training personnel and other resources available.

87.probably to ideas that people grew up with about segregation of the races

88.The letter suggests that not everyone will welcome the change, as it goes against “some individual ideas and attitudes.”

89.intelligent and forceful planning and leadership

90.1941 and 1942

91.about 95,000

92.During the war, consumer industries converted to war production. As passenger car production went down, military aircraft production went up.


94.about 85,000

95.During the war, consumer industries converted to war production. As passenger car production went down, military aircraft production went up.

96.Farmers, like soldiers, have an important role to play in the war effort.

97.Both symbolized patriotic duty during wartime.

98.The poster suggests that farming is a patriotic duty, analogous to serving in the military. The slogan “Food for Freedom” also relates agricultural work to the war effort. Indeed, great amounts of food were needed to support military forces overseas as well as people at home.

99.Possible answers: The artist might have assumed that young farmers would prefer to be fighting overseas; that many farmers were young, white, and male; or that depicting a farmer as such would elicit a patriotic response.

Passenger Car Production (in Millions)
Military Aircraft Production (in Thousands)
1939  1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946
1939  1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946