1. _____ is an alternate state of heightened suggestibility characterized by relaxation and intense focus.
B.Amphetamine psychosis

2. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of REM sleep?
A.sexual arousal may occur
B.muscles are paralyzed
C.most dreams occur here
D.theta and delta waves intermix

3. The suspected cause of sleep apnea is _____.
A.a malfunction in the reticular activating system or the brain stem
B.malnutrition, alcoholism, or obesity
C.an upper airway blockage or a brain failure to signal the diaphragm
D.a mystery to sleep researchers at this time

4. The _____ view suggests dreams serve an information processing function and help us sift through our everyday experiences and thoughts.

5. Just before sleep, brain waves move from _____ waves, indicating normal wakefulness, to _____ waves associated with drowsy relaxation.
A.beta; alpha
B.theta; delta
C.alpha; beta
D.sigma; chi

6. Two neurotransmitters implicated in the addiction to drugs are _____.
A.dopamine and serotonin
B.serotonin and glutamate
C.endorphins and epinephrine
D.dopamine and glutamate

7. Drug-taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the drug user or others is known as _____.
B.physical dependence
C.psychological dependence
D.drug abuse

8. _____ processes are mental activities that require minimal attention, without affecting other activities

9. Automatic processing can _____.
A.be interrupted by important incoming information
B.help us concentrate on more important tasks or concerns
C.lead to health or relationship problems
D.all of these options

10. Which of the following persons is clearly experiencing insomnia?
A.Kipp frequently cannot fall asleep the night before a final exam
B.Kaula regularly sleeps less than eight hours per night
C.Consuela persistently has difficulty falling or staying asleep
D.all of these options

11. _____ is the development of decreasing sensitivity to a drug because of continued use; whereas _____ is the development of decreasing sensitivity to a drug because of the use of another drug.
A.Addiction; tolerance
B.Tolerance; addiction
C.Drug abuse; drug addiction
D.Tolerance; cross-tolerance

12. _____ act on the nervous system to increase its overall activity and responsiveness.
C.Alcoholic beverages
D.Psychoactive drugs

13. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the differences between psychological and physical drug dependence?
A.Physical dependence is much harder to treat than psychological dependence.
B.Psychological dependence rarely gets out of control.
C.Psychological dependence can be strong enough to cause an "addict" to return to drug use after physical dependence has been overcome.
D.Physiological dependence cannot occur unless psychological dependence is present.

14. Scientists study sleep using sleep labs and _____.
A.EKG recordings
B.PET scans
C.functional MRI scans
D.EEG recordings

15. With regard to sleep, research suggests that _____ is nature's first need.
A.REM sleep
B.non-REM sleep
D.hypnogogic sleep

16. The two ways leftover neurotransmitters are disposed of are _____.
A.inactivation and deactivation
B.reabsorption and reuptake
C.reabsorption and enzymatic breakdown
D.inactivation and nervous breakdown

17. The "Morpheus area" for sleep in the brain can be found in _____.
A.the reticular activating system (RAS)
B.the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VPN)
C.the limbic system, hypothalamus, and thalamus
D.many areas

18. Martha's family is at the beach. Her children are playing in the waves and the sand, while she is resting on shore. It is most likely that Martha's brain waves are primarily _____, while her children's brain waves are primarily _____.
A.hypnotic; hypnogogic
B.alpha; beta
C.delta; beta
D.gamma; delta

19. During an interview for a news article on cocaine, your informant says she is like most cocaine users, and uses this drug primarily because _____.
A.it makes her feel powerful and dynamic
B.there is no evidence that she could develop a dependency on it
C.it is the "in" thing to do
D.heroin costs too much

20. Hallucinogens _____.
A.are drugs that produce sensory or perceptual distortions
B.are called psychedelics
C.include mescaline, psilocybin, LSD, and marijuana
D.all of these options

21. Research on marijuana has found which of the following effects?
A.It is helpful in treating glaucoma, asthma, seizures, and anxiety, and has very few negative effects.
B.Benefits are related to the placebo effect.
C.It can impair memory and learning, impair lung functioning and the immune response, and decrease testosterone levels and reduce sperm.
D.It has no addictive properties, and no effects on the brain.

22. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of hypnosis?
A.tuning out of irrelevant sensory stimuli
B.use of imagination and hallucination
C.active participation and focused attitude
D.decreased responsiveness to pain

23. Which of the following persons is meditating?
A.Tsuan-wen, who is gazing at a candle while repeating the word "om"
B.Suzanne, who is performing Tai Chi movements
C.Randi, who has slowed his breathing and heart rate far below normal waking levels
D.all of these options

24. Your assignment in Journalism 101 is to research hypnosis. Which of the following statements would be most ACCURATE to include in your report?
A.People can be hypnotized against their will if the hypnotist is good enough.
B.When under hypnosis, a person will comply with any suggestion from the hypnotist, including one which goes against their deeply held moral beliefs.
C.Some parts of a person's recall memory may be improved, but the number of errors made under hypnosis increases.
D.People under hypnosis can do things that require superhuman strength, while people who are not hypnotized cannot.

25. This is NOT one of the major reasons many cultures support the use of alternate states of consciousness.
A.to seek spiritual enlightenment
B.to facilitate social interactions
C.to escape from stress and anxiety
D.to heal unconscious wounds inflicted by societal taboos

26. The evolutionary/circadian theory of sleep says that _____.
A.sleep evolved to decrease the number of hours of daydreaming
B.sleep conserves energy and protects us from predators
C.sleep restores the biological rhythms that would otherwise be disrupted by round-the-clock wakefulness
D.sleep is necessary for the evolution of our species into spiritual beings

27. The role of glutamate in addiction appears to be that it _____.
A.affects the brain's reward system
B.slows down neurons in the frontal lobe, preventing critical thinking
C.creates lasting memories of the drug's effects by changing the connections between neurons
D.increases the effectiveness of other neurotransmitters that share the synapse with it

28. REM sleep is also called _____ because the brain is aroused and active while the person remains nonresponsive and asleep.
B.paradoxical sleep
C.hypnogogic sleep
D.transitional sleep

29. Which of the following lists contain ONLY psychoactive drugs?
A.caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol
B.antacids, antidepressants, and antipsychotics
C.insulin, narcotics, and hallucinogens
D.endorphins, L-Dopa, and Prozac

30. When repeated drug use causes changes in the body that require continued drug use to prevent withdrawal symptoms, a state of _____ has been reached.
A.drug-induced brain damage
B.psychoactive addiction
C.physical dependence
D.drug dependence

31. _____ waves are associated with normal wakefulness.

32. Requiring larger and more frequent doses of a drug to produce a desired effect is characteristic of _____.
C.psychoactive dependence
D.all of these options

33. Freud's ideas about how and why dreams happen have _____.
A.stood the test of time and research
B.received little or no scientific support
C.can be dangerous if used by a non-professional
D.have been proven to be false and misleading

34. Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence of sleep stages?
A.non-REM ® Stages 1-2-3-4 ® REM
B.hypnogogic ® Stages 1-2-3-4 ® REM ® Stages 4-3-2-1
C.hypnogogic ® Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 ® REM
D.non-REM ® Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 ® REM

35. Hallucinogenic flashbacks can be brought on by _____.
A.stress, fatigue, or illness
B.emerging from a dark room or using marijuana
C.both of these options
D.none of these options; no one knows why or when they will occur

36. The idea that dreams are the by-product of random stimulation of brain cells, and that the brain attempts to combine this stimulation into a coherent pattern, is known as the _____ hypothesis of dreaming.
D.brain stimulation

37. Marijuana has properties of _____.
D.all of these options

38. Which of the following patients would be a good candidate for hypnosis?
A.Tran is very fearful and misinformed about tomorrow's dental surgery.
B.Greg really wants to perform at his peak in the upcoming Boston Marathon.
C.Ovitz gets very anxious the day before a final exam.
D.They are all good candidates for hypnosis.

39. Depressants include all of the following EXCEPT _____.
A.downers such as sedatives, barbiturates, antianxiety drugs
D.Valium, Seconal

40. According to the addiction model, drug use is maintained by which of the following factors?
A.its effect on the pleasure centers in the brain
B.a genetic predisposition to be sensitive to addiction
C.the route used to ingest the drug (e.g., lungs, blood, digestive tract)
D.all of these options

41. Which of the following drugs is a central nervous system stimulant?

42. The relaxation/role-playing theory of hypnosis suggests that _____.
A.nearly anyone can be relaxed enough to be hypnotized, and will take on any role they are asked to play
B.deeply relaxed people with heightened suggestibility will allow a hypnotist to direct their fantasies and behavior
C.hypnosis is the result of conscious fakery on the part of the hypnotized subject
D.none of these options

43. Controlled processes require _____ attention, whereas automatic processes need _____ attention.
A.external; internal
B.conscious; unconscious
C.focused; minimal
D.beta wave; delta wave

44. You just awoke from a startling dream in which you were very frightened, but could not move. How would the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming explain your dream?
A.Your amygdala was randomly stimulated, but REM-stage paralysis kept you from moving.
B.You were frightened by something during the day but didn't pay attention to it at the time, which caused you to feel helpless in your dream.
C.You are frightened of your occasional urges to harm others, and your unconscious mind prevented you from following through on these urges.
D.You experienced random stimulation of the amygdala and other brain areas, but your cerebellum was not stimulated at all.

45. LSD _____.
A.is rarely used "regularly" or abused
B.is increasingly used by high school and college students
C.can be extremely dangerous, leading to accidents, death, suicide
D.all of these options

46. The information processing theory of dreaming suggests that _____.
A.dreams are a form of thinking during sleep
B.dreams help us sift through and sort out our everyday experiences
C.dreams are mysterious messages from random brain stimulation and unconscious desires that need to be cognitively considered
D.none of these options

47. Which of the following is NOT true about cigarette smoking?
A.It increases the chances of acquiring lung cancer, bronchitis, emphysema, and heart disease.
B.It doubles the risk of heart attack in nonsmokers who are regularly exposed to passive smoke.
C.It stimulates the same brain areas as cocaine, and is addictive.
D.It is the third most preventable cause of death and disease in the U.S.

48. _____ is a brain chemical that may help regulate sleep.

49. The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, _____.
A.binds to the same receptor sites as two other neurotransmitters in the brain whose functions are unknown
B.binds to receptor sites in the hippocampus and limbic system
C.is entirely harmless
D.all of these options

50. Durango was very angry with his stepmother, and almost wished she were dead. That night Durango dreamed that he bought his stepmother a one-way ticket to Siberia and forced her to take it. According to Freud, the latent content of Durango's dream would be _____, while the manifest content would be _____.
A.buying the ticket; wishing she were dead
B.wishing she were dead; buying the ticket
C.forcing her to take the ticket; buying the ticket
D.angry feelings; wishing she were dead

51. The condition that is characterized by repeated drug use that results in increased tolerance and withdrawal symptoms is called ______.
A.drug abuse
D.drug dependence

52. Which of the following statements about sleep disorders is TRUE?
A.Less than 5% of American adults suffer from sleep disorders
B.Only 5% of children under the age of 5 have sleep disorders
C.Young adults frequently have difficulty falling or staying asleep
D.Approximately 20% of all drivers have fallen asleep at the wheel

53. Galen's new baby is scrunching up her face, breathing irregularly, making little sounds, and moving her eyes rapidly back and forth under closed lids. Galen asks you if this means the baby is waking up. Based on what you know about sleep cycles, your BEST answer would be _____.
A.Yes, the baby appears to be coming out of Stage 1 sleep.
B.No, the baby is showing signs of a transition between sleep stages.
C.Yes, the baby has obviously been awake for several minutes.
D.No, the baby is most likely in a dream-state, called the paradoxical or REM sleep stage.

54. The altered state theory of hypnosis suggests that _____.
A.hypnotic effects result from an altered state of consciousness
B.hypnosis is an alternate way to explain the effects of meditation
C.hypnosis is no different than any other altered state, such as dreaming or meditating
D.hypnotic effects are the result of a combination of role-playing and an altered state of relaxation

55. Which of the following statements about alcohol is FALSE?
A.it has stimulating effects at low doses
B.it sedates or slows the body and brain down at higher doses
C.at high levels (> 0.5%) it can cause a coma or death
D.all of these options are true

56. Tavish tells you that he can taste the color of the sky and see the sound of the birds chirping. It is likely that Tavish has ingested _____.
B.a hallucinogen
C.a stimulant
D.any of the above

57. According to the American Medical Association, the drug that is the most dangerous and physically damaging is _____.

58. Marijuana is classified in your text as a _____.
D.LSD derivative

59. Which of the following persons is engaged in controlled mental processing?
A.Adrienne is listening to the radio while driving her car in light traffic
B.Bertha is rubbing her belly and patting her head at the same time
C.Alonzo is daydreaming about becoming a world-famous neurosurgeon
D.Colin is meditating

60. Which of the following is TRUE regarding a typical night's sleep cycles?
A.There are seven to eight cycles per night, each lasting about one hour.
B.Stages 3 and 4 decrease, while REM sleep increases during the night.
C.Brain waves increase in frequency and decrease in amplitude as the night progresses.
D.Everyone's sleep cycle always progresses from Stage 1 to 4, and back.

61. Which of the following is FALSE about sleep apnea?
A.It is characterized by periods of more than 10 seconds without breathing
B.It is accompanied by repeated awakenings, gasping for breath, and daytime sleepiness
C.It is a suspected factor in SIDS, snoring, high blood pressure, and heart damage
D.all of these options are true

62. Which of the following is a suggested treatment for sleep apnea?
A.dieting to reduce obesity
B.surgery, or dental appliances that reposition the tongue
C.sewing tennis balls on the back of your pajama top
D.all of these options

63. Which of the following is a circadian rhythm?
A.the sleep-wake cycle
B.the menstrual cycle
C.jet lag
D.all of these options

64. Two drugs that prevent the inactivation of leftover neurotransmitters in the synapse are _____.
A.nicotine and cocaine
B.cocaine and alcohol
C.LSD and alcohol
D.nicotine and LSD

65. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
A.Everyone needs eight hours of sleep each night.
B.Some people never dream.
C.Sexual arousal during sleep can occur without having a sexual dream.
D.Dying in your dream can be fatal.

66. The persistent inability to fall or stay asleep, or awakening too early is a symptom of _____.
C.sleep apnea
D.all of these options

67. The repair/restoration theory of sleep says that sleep serves _____.
A.a recuperative function, following depletion of key brain and body mechanisms
B.as a means of protecting animals from predators, and restoring the balance of nature
C.to conserve energy for use the following day
D.to repair damage done to the CNS, endocrine, reproductive, cardiovascular, and other systems of the body

68. The _____ theory says that sleep allows us to replenish what was depleted during daytime activities.
D.conservation of energy

69. Nicotine's molecular structure is very similar to the neurotransmitter _____, so when it fills the receptor sites for this neurotransmitter, the next neuron will be _____.
A.GABA; inhibited
B.acetylcholine; inhibited
C.dopamine; stimulated
D.acetylcholine; stimulated

70. _____ is the state of being aware and responsive to stimuli in the external and internal environment.
D.Central processing

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