1. Your text describes a hypothesis as _____.
A.a prediction regarding a behavior
B.a statement of cause and effect regarding two or more behaviors
C.a possible explanation for a behavior
D.any or all of these options

2. Which of the following research techniques would allow you to make a statement about cause-and-effect?
A.a survey
B.naturalistic observation
C.an experiment
D.an individual case study

3. Which of the following is the BEST definition of a correlation?
A.a positive relationship between variables
B.a negative relationship between variables
C.a zero relationship between variables
D.the relationship between variables

4. Most psychologists today use the principles and techniques from different perspectives as they suit the situation at hand. This statement demonstrates the _____ approach to psychology.

5. A measurable behavior exhibited by a subject in an experiment is called the _____.
A.independent variable
B.observational variable
C.dependent variable
D.correlation score

6. In Milgram's famous obedience study, what steps did the researcher take to assure the short- and long-term well-being of participants who had been deceived?
A.He provided therapy for anyone who was upset by the study.
B.After the study was over, he reassured them that their behavior (obedience or defiance) was normal and exhibited by others in the study.
C.He protected them from the truth by preventing them from reading the final research results for a period of several years.
D.all of these options

7. You are really interested in studying social adjustments and interactions from infancy through old age. The field of psychology that would BEST fit your interests is _____.
B.behavioral psychology
C.social psychology
D.developmental psychology

8. Which of the following therapists is NOT violating psychology's ethical standard of confidentiality?
A.Dr. Novak called the Department of Social Services to report her client, who admitted during their session together that she was abusing her nine-year-old daughter.
B.Dr. Jones describes detailed case histories of former clients to his psychology class without disguising their characteristics.
C.Dr. Smith-Nguyen discusses a client with his wife to get her advice.
D.Dr. Polanski told two of his colleagues that he was treating a local television news anchor for major depression, but didn't name her.

9. The placebo effect can be defined as _____.
A.a change in participants' behavior that is due to their belief that they received a drug or treatment when they really received an inert substance or bogus treatment
B.a mistake in research caused by incompetent researchers or uncooperative participants
C.the effect that the independent variable has on the dependent variable, when all other variables are held constant
D.a change in the quality of research caused by non-random sampling

10. Facts, statistics, and pieces of information are synonyms for the word _____.
D.all of these options

11. Deception is sometimes used in psychological research in order to _____.
A.create a realistic situation with genuine reactions
B.protect the public from unpleasant research realities
C.protect participants from being harmed
D.prevent sample bias, ethnocentric bias, or experimenter bias

12. In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the unconscious refers to _____.
A.the part of the mind whose contents people actively resist bringing into awareness
B.the part of the mind whose contents can never be known
C.the part of the mind that is split off from reality
D.none of these options

13. Someone who applies psychological principles and techniques to the treatment of mental disorders or to the problems of everyday adjustment is _____, and must maintain _____.
A.engaging in pseudopsychology; credibility
B.serving in an advisory position; objectivity
C.practicing psychotherapy; confidentiality
D.practicing psychoanalysis; a professional distance

14. A naturalistic observer would be most likely to do which of the following?
A.conduct an in-depth study of a single subject
B.observe participants as they behave naturally in the laboratory
C.systematically record behavior in a participant's natural state or habitat
D.none of these options

15. Psychobiologists believe that _____.
A.behavior is a result of complex chemical and biological events within the brain
B.biology is destiny
C.mental behavior has evolved in the same way that physical adaptation to the environment has evolved
D.the way to understand human behavior is to first understand animal behavior

16. You are really interested in helping companies run more productively, and assisting employers in improving relationships between employees and their supervisors. Which of the following fields might you MOST want to consider pursuing to achieve your career goal?
A.social psychology
B.employee relations psychology
C.industrial/organizational psychology
D.business administration

17. A case study _____.
A.is an in-depth study of a single research topic
B.may be used when it is difficult to obtain a sufficient number of subjects for an experiment, survey, or naturalistic observation
C.sometimes involves the study of rare disorders or situations
D.all of these options

18. If both variables in a correlational study vary in opposite directions (one increases and the other decreases), the relationship is described as _____.
D.statistically significant

19. Your text defines the experimental condition in an experiment as _____.
A.the substance that produces a physiological effect in drug research
B.the part of the experiment in which participants receive the independent variable
C.the part of the experiment in which participants receive the dependent variable
D.the condition that allows cause-effect conclusions to be made

20. Maria is thinking of running for student body president, but she wonders whether her campaign should emphasize campus security, improved parking facilities, or increased health services. Which scientific method of research would you recommend she use to determine the focus of her campaign?
A.a case study
B.naturalistic observation
C.an experiment
D.a survey

21. A sample is BEST defined as _____.
A.a group of participants in a study that have sampled the treatment condition
B.a selected group of participants that is representative of a larger population
C.the total of all possible cases from which a population is selected
D.a group of participants in a study that is atypical of the larger population

22. Your research class conducted an experiment on caffeine-induced stress in which neither the class researchers nor the participants in the experiment knew who received caffeine and who did not until after the study was completed. This research technique is called a(n) _____.
A.counterbalanced design
B.double-blind experiment
C.unknown condition experiment
D.controlled deception condition

23. Your text defines the control condition in an experiment as _____.
A.the part of the experiment in which participants do not receive the independent variable
B.the part of the experiment in which participants receive the dependent variable
C.the substance that produces no physiological effect in drug research
D.the condition imposed by ethics committees to control for the safety of participants

24. The term statistics refers to the _____.
A.data collected in a research study
B.mathematical procedures used to analyze the data from a study
C.both of these options
D.none of these options

25. When a research result is said to be statistically significant, this means the researchers _____.
A.have good reason to believe the result was a coincidence
B.must repeat their study to confirm their results
C.have good reason to believe they have found a relationship that was not caused by chance
D.must recalculate and reanalyze their data to confirm their results

26. Cognitive psychology focuses on the _____.
A.conflict within the unconscious mind
B.positive, creative, growth-seeking potential of human nature
C.decision making, problem solving, concept formation, and other forms of reasoning or mental processing
D.complex biochemical events involved in information processing

27. The goals of psychology are to _____.
A.explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind
B.understand, compare, and analyze human behavior
C.improve psychological well-being in all individuals from conception to death
D.describe, explain, predict, and change behavior

28. Carlos and Bonita were intrigued by the results of a study about the biases people display toward work done by males compared to work done by females. They decided to perform the same study, following the same procedures themselves to see if they would get the same results. This is an example of _____.
A.an invalid research method
B.a replication of studies
D.a redundant waste of time

29. The Taiwanese study that found that the number of electric appliances in a person's home was the best predictor of the use of contraceptives was used by your text's authors to illustrate which of the following facts?
A.a negative correlation is better than a positive correlation
B.a positive correlation is better than a negative correlation
C.correlation does not imply causation
D.causation does not imply correlation

30. The psychological school of thought called structuralism is associated with _____, and engages in the method of studying experience called _____.
A.Siskel & Ebert; critical review
B.Ben & Jerry; decadent indulgence
C.Tom & Jerry; cutting to the chase
D.Wundt & Titchener; introspection

31. Your text defines pseudopsychology as _____.
A.attempts to explain behavior or personality differences using nonscientific or deliberately fraudulent methods
B.entertainment based on commonsense, which is more often correct than incorrect
C.entertainment based on commonsense, which is more often incorrect than correct
D.none of these options

32. Covert behavior refers to behavior that is _____.
A.hard to detect or not directly observable
B.forceful and exploitative
C.easily seen and described
D.not associated with any emotional arousal

33. Cultural psychology is the study of the _____
A.influence of culture and ethnic practices on people's behavior
B.superiority of some cultures over others
C.common behaviors that occur in all cultures
D.none of these options

34. Dr. Watson, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on objective, observable behavior rather than on the unconscious; Dr. Rogers, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on the importance of the inner, subjective self and stressed the positive side of human nature.
A.behaviorism; humanistic
B.cognitive; psychoanalytic
C.developmental; ethereal
D.conditional; unconditional

35. Psychology is BEST defined as the _____.
A.science of conscious and unconscious forces on behavior
B.empirical study of the mind
C.scientific study of adaptive and maladaptive behaviors
D.scientific study of behavior and mental processes

36. While conducting research, you unintentionally provide subtle cues to the study's participants about the purpose of the research, which influences your results in the direction you expected. This is a demonstration of _____.
A.ethnocentric research
B.misapplication of an independent variable
C.experimenter bias
D.none of these options

37. Overt behavior refers to behavior that _____.
A.is easily seen or identified
B.is associated with emotional arousal
C.can be measured using psychological tests
D.overcomes obstacles and leads to adaptive functioning

38. Behaviorism differs from the approaches for studying behavior proposed by Wundt, James, Freud, and the Gestalt psychologists in that behaviorists focus on _____.
A.the use of introspection
B.individual differences people exhibit
C.unconscious motivation of behavior
D.observable behaviors

39. The largest professional organization of psychologists is the _____; and the largest number of psychologists work in the field of _____ psychology.
A.American Psychiatric Association; counseling and guidance
B.American Medical Association; health
C.American Psychological Association; clinical and personality
D.American Medical Association; industry and business

40. In experiments, _____ variables are selected and manipulated by the experimenter.

41. A bundle of axons from many neurons is called a _____.
B.somatic gathering
C.neuronal bundle

42. Which of the following characteristics of the spinal cord is INACCURATE? The spinal cord _____.
A.is protected by vertebrae
B.serves as the communication link between the brain and the rest of the body
C.contains gray matter (cell bodies) in its outer layer and white matter (myelin) at its center
D.may still be able to perform some reflex actions even when it has been damaged

43. If your neighbor was abducted by aliens and they removed his right parietal lobe, he would be unable to _____.
A.move the left side of his body
B.move the right side of his body
C.feel sensations from the left side of his body
D.feel sensations from the right side of his body

44. Which of the following terms do NOT belong together?
A.afferent: sensory information
B.afferent: incoming messages
C.efferent: incoming messages
D.efferent: motor information

45. If you are at a rock concert and your date is trying to tell you something important, it is your _____ that helps you filter out sensory input all around you and focus your attention on what your date is saying.
A.pons and medulla
B.cerebral cortex
C.reticular activating system
D.auditory cortex

46. Chemical messengers that are released by axons and stimulate dendrites on another neuron are called _____.
A.chemical messengers
C.synaptic transmitters

47. The _____ is involved with your emotional behavior, especially fear and aggression.
B.limbic system
C.reticular activating system
D.projection area

48. The somatic nervous system is made up of _____.
A.sensory and motor nerves going to and from the CNS, organs, and skeletal muscles
B.the spinal cord and interneurons in the spine
C.the nerves that maintain the functioning of the glands, heart muscles, and other smooth muscles
D.all of these options

49. With regard to the all-or-nothing principle, _____.
A.an electrical current crosses the synapse completely or not at all
B.nerve cells are continuously active
C.an axon either fires an action potential or does not
D.all the neurons in a particular area of the brain fire or none of them fire

50. When you reach out to choose a candy bar from a vending machine, the _____ area of the _____ lobe guides your hand in pulling the proper lever.
A.somato-sensory; parietal
B.coordination; cerebella
C.motor control; frontal
D.movement center; parietal

51. Which of the following statements about aggression is INCORRECT?
A.The septum has a moderating effect on aggression.
B.Higher levels of testosterone are associated with increased aggression in several species.
C.Damage to the frontal lobes can cause a person to be more or less aggressive.
D.In both animals and humans, aggression is exclusively under the control of the limbic system.

52. Three parts of the brain stem are the _____.
A.RAS, cerebellum, and spinal cord
B.motor control area, sensory projection area, and association cortex
C.pons, medulla, and RAS
D.cerebrum, cerebellum, and septum

53. The _____ in the frontal lobes are responsible for initiating movement, while the _____ is responsible for making movements smooth, coordinated, and on target.
A.cortex; cerebellum
B.cerebellum; motor control area
C.motor control area; cerebellum
D.cortex; corpus callosum

54. An X ray that reveals internal structural damage or problems in the brain is called a _____ scan.
A.positron emission tomography (PET)
B.computerized axial tomography (CAT)
C.magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
D.none of these options; X rays cannot be used safely on brain tissue

55. A synapse is _____.
A.the gap between the brain and the skull which contains cerebrospinal fluid
B.the junction between neurons
C.the vesicle that contains neurotransmitters
D.the place where neurotransmitters exchange ionic molecules

56. Beverly had a stroke that affected her _____ area, and has not been able to speak even though she can read and write; Jonathan had a stroke that affected his _____ area, and speaks gibberish and is unable to make sense of what other people tell him.
A.memory; language
B.Broca's; Wernicke's
C.Wernicke's; Broca's
D.language; memory

57. The long tube-like structure attached to a neuron cell body that sends impulses away from the soma toward another neuron is called a(n) _____.
C.myelin sheath

58. Your blood sugar levels and other body chemicals are in normal steady ranges. This means that your body is in a state called _____.
A.the resting potential
C.sympathetic arousal

59. The association areas are found in the _____, and are involved in _____.
A.cerebellum; balance and motor control
B.cerebral cortex; thinking, memory, learning, and problem solving
C.parietal lobes; associating sensory and motor information
D.spinal cord; reflexive actions that require quick associations

60. The subcortical structure that looks like two little footballs connected by a thin group of nerve fibers is the _____, whose function is to _____.
A.corpus callosum; connect the two cerebral hemispheres
B.hypothalamus; regulate the endocrine system
C.thalamus; relay sensory information to appropriate cortical areas
D.reticular activating system; filter incoming sensory information

61. The autonomic nervous system is divided into two branches called the _____.
A.autonomatic and semi-automatic systems
B.somatic and peripheral systems
C.afferent and efferent systems
D.sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

62. The name of the bridge that connects your right and left cerebral hemispheres is the _____.
A.corpus callosum
B.cerebral cortex
D.none of these options

63. Which of the following is FALSE regarding split-brain patients?
A.They can walk, talk, play catch, and perform complicated mental tasks.
B.They have a split personality after the surgery.
C.They cannot name an obvious household object they are holding in their left hand if they cannot see it or hear it.
D.They often experience dramatic relief from seizures caused by epilepsy.

64. An electrochemical impulse that travels down an axon to the axon terminal button is called a(n) _____.
A.action potential
B.positive potential
C.negative potential

65. The peripheral nervous system _____.
A.is composed of both the brain and the spinal cord
B.is less important than the central nervous system
C.is contained within the skull and spinal column
D.includes all the nerves going to and from the brain and spinal cord

66. The systematic destruction of brain tissue and the study of the resultant changes in behavior is known as _____.
A.systematic deautomatization
B.the lesion technique
C.electrical monitoring

67. The two major ions involved in action potentials are _____.
A.hydrogen and chlorine
B.sulfur and silicon
C.sodium and potassium
D.manganese and lithium

68. Clarice was in an automobile accident and damaged her spinal cord just below the base of her skull. As a result, Clarice cannot control _____.
A.her eye movements
B.movement of her facial features
C.any body parts above the injury
D.any body parts below the injury

69. Leon has been placed in a _____ machine that uses radio waves instead of X rays to construct pictures of his brain.
A.computerized axial tomography
C.magnetic resonance imaging
D.positron emission tomography

70. An axon membrane that has a high concentration of sodium ions outside and a high concentration of potassium and protein ions inside is in a(n) _____ state, and this is called a(n) _____ potential.
A.active; excitatory
B.neutral; resting
C.resting; resting
D.neutral; inhibitory

71. Most psychoactive drugs have their effects in the _____ to either increase or decrease _____.
A.spinal cord; reflexes
B.axon; Na+ and K+ ions
C.cell body; proteins and other nutrients
D.synapse; neurotransmitters

72. The central nervous system _____.
A.consists of the brain and spinal cord
B.is the most important nervous system
C.includes the autonomic and other nervous systems
D.all of these options

73. The "master endocrine gland", (actually a part of the brain) that regulates your drives for hunger, thirst, sex, aggression, and controls the pituitary gland, is called the _____.
C.Adrenal gland
D.reticular activating system

74. The branching parts of the neuron that receive neural impulses from other neurons and send them toward the soma are called _____.
A.myelin sheaths
B.axon buttons

75. The _____ nervous system dominates when you are in a relaxed state, and the _____ nervous system dominates when you are in an aroused or stressful state.
A.somatic; autonomic
B.autonomic; somatic
C.parasympathetic; sympathetic
D.sympathetic; parasympathetic

76. Rosa has multiple sclerosis, a degenerative disorder that causes myelin to disintegrate. What effect is this going to have on Rosa's nerve impulses?
A.they will slow down
B.they will be stopped in the soma
C.they will speed up
D.none of these options

77. Chemicals that are produced by endocrine glands and circulated in the bloodstream to change or maintain bodily functions are called _____.

78. The case of Phineas Gage suggests that the _____ lobes regulate our personalities and are largely responsible for much of what makes us uniquely human.

79. Sensory projection areas for vision are found in the _____ lobes.

80. The spinal cord is found inside the spinal column and is involved in _____.
A.relaying neural information from the body to the brain
B.relaying neural information from the brain to the body
D.all of these options

81. The _____ is the transparent elastic structure that focuses light on the back of the eyes by changing shape.

82. Each semicircular canal contains _____ that moves and bends hair cells and provides information about _____.
A.a small bone; position in space
B.fluid; balance
C.cochlear tissue; balance
D.none of these options

83. Which of the following is NOT a monocular cue?
B.linear perspective
D.texture gradients

84. Tiny cells on your retina are detecting the contours of the letters on this page and sending that information to your brain. These are your _____ for vision.

85. _____ is your ability to perceive distance and three dimensional space.
A.Spatial perception
B.Visual-spatial perception
C.Depth perception
D.Visual-depth perception

86. Hair cells are sensory receptors found in the _____.
B.semicircular canals
C.vestibular sacs
D.all of these options

87. The _____ is the colored part of the eye that controls the size of the _____ through which light passes into the eye.
A.pupil; iris
B.iris; optic chiasm
C.iris; pupil
D.sclera; iris

88. Interposition is the monocular cue that is based on _____.
A.the distinctiveness or blurriness of objects at different distances
B.the appearance of convergence at the horizon
C.the obscuring of a distant object by an object that is closer
D.the smallness of a distant object compared to closer objects

89. When you see a partially opened door, you know that the door is rectangular even though the image being detected by your retina is a trapezoid. This is an example of the perceptual principle called _____.
A.geometrical perceptual consistency
B.optical constancy
C.shape constancy
D.form consistency

90. Lamont is working in a photography dark room. When he first entered this room, he experienced visual _____ adaptation, and when he comes out he will experience _____ adaptation.
A.light; dark
B.sensory; perceptual
C.dark; light
D.perceptual; sensory

91. The theory of color vision proposed by Thomas Young that says there are three color systems (red, green, and blue) is called the _____.
A.tricolor theory
B.trichromatic theory
C.tripigment theory
D.opponent-process theory

92. The blind spot has _____, while the fovea has _____ .
A.only cones; both rods and cones
B.no receptors; both rods and cones
C.only rods; only cones
D.no receptors; only cones

93. The cornea is _____.
A.a tough transparent bulging shield that allows light rays to enter the visual system.
B.the transparent elastic structure that focuses light on the retina by changing shape
C.the area at the back of the eye that contains light receptors
D.the colored part of the eye that accommodates in order to focus an image on the lens

94. Taste receptors are called _____, and are found on the _____ on the tongue.
A.papillae; taste buds
B.gustatory cells; pores
C.taste buds; papillae
D.gustatory cells; papillae

95. Which of the following does NOT influence perceptual selection?
A.novelty or repetition
C.contrast or movement

96. The nerve that carries visual information from the retina to the brain is called the _____.
A.visual nerve
B.retinal nerve
C.optic chiasm
D.optic nerve

97. Body chemicals or odors that effect the behavior of others are called _____.
B.epithelial molecules
D.olfactory by-products

98. Three people standing next to each other were witnesses to a robbery. When asked for a description of the robber, each person gave a different answer. These different interpretations most likely illustrate differences in _____.
C.visual acuity

99. Rods are most sensitive _____, and less sensitive _____.
A.to color wavelengths; in dim light
B.in dim light; to low amplitude light waves
C.in dim light; to color wavelengths
D.to color wavelengths; to high amplitude light waves

100. Feature detectors are specialized cells _____.
A.in the spinal cord that detect and alert the nervous system to painful stimuli
B.in the skin that detect the difference between different kinds of touch
C.in the brain that respond only to certain kinds of sensory information
D.in the eyes that detect and respond only to certain features in the visual field

101. A thirsty man in the desert looks to the horizon and sees an oasis, but when he arrives at the spot and finds no water he realizes that the oasis was _____.
A.a hallucination
B.a flaw in his sense of vision
C.30 miles to the west
D.an illusion

102. As a flock of Canadian geese flies overhead in its familiar "V" formation, the geese are seen as _____ and the sky as _____.
A.continuity; closure
B.a sensation; perception
C.figure; ground
D.ground; figure

103. _____ refers to a binocular cue that comes from the separation of the eyes, which causes different images to fall on each retina.
A.Stereoscopic vision
C.Retinal disparity
D.Binocular disparity

104. The sense that is involved when you are sitting up, walking, or riding a bike is called the _____ sense.

105. The cones on the retina respond to _____.
A.color and fine detail
B.dim light and color
C.fine detail and dim light
D.color, and dim light

106. Research with the "visual cliff" suggests that _____.
A.humans and animals must learn depth perception through experience
B.depth perception is innate in animals, but learned in humans
C.some depth perception is inborn, since humans and animals both hesitate in stepping onto the steep side of the "cliff"
D.none of these options

107. In a study of the kinesthetic sense, an experimenter intentionally disturbed tendon receptors in participants' wrists using a vibrating device. Participants subsequently reported feeling _____.
A.a pins and needles sensation on their wrists
B.nothing out of the ordinary
C.the existence of multiple forearms
D.their arms waving goodbye

108. The pathway for light energy is _____.
A.pupil ® cornea ® lens ® vitreous humor ® retina
B.lens ® pupil ® cornea ® aqueous humor ® retina
C.cornea ® pupil ® lens ® vitreous humor ® retina
D.cornea ® vitreous humor ® pupil ® lens ® retina

109. The retina is _____.
A.an area at the back of the eye that contains light receptors shaped like rods and cones
B.the point on the fovea that contains only cones, and which is responsible for our clearest vision
C.a part of the eye that contains no receptors
D.the largest part of the optic nerve

110. When we organize patterns in order to perceive an entire stimulus, rather than just its parts, we are using _____ principle of perception.
A.the wholistic
C.the Gestalt
D.the closure

111. The snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure that contains receptors for hearing is the _____.
C.vestibular canals
D.all of these options

112. A subliminal stimulus refers to any stimulus that _____.
A.is presented during a person's motivational need state
B.actually manipulates people without their knowing about it
C.is presented below the threshold of a person's conscious awareness
D.none of these options

113. The three body senses are _____.
A.pressure, temperature, and pain
B.skin, vestibular, and kinesthetic
C.skin, position, and movement
D.pain, position, and balance

114. Your companion on a train ride through Kansas notices that telephone poles near the tracks are passing by very quickly, while telephone poles in the distance are passing by much more slowly. This is an example of _____.
A.motion parallax
B.relative motion
C.speed perception
D.motion parallax and relative motion

115. Stimulation deafness is _____.
A.one of the most common types of nerve deafness
B.caused by exposure to loud sounds that damage hair cells
C.caused by brief exposure to 150 decibels or greater, or by daily exposure to 85 decibels or higher
D.all of these options

116. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.telepathy: reading other people's minds
B.clairvoyance: knowing what will happen before it happens
C.precognition: predicting the future
D.psychokinesis: moving objects without touching them

117. When you first put your clothes on this morning you felt them on your skin, but within minutes you no longer noticed them. This is an example of _____.
A.sensory accommodation
B.sensory adaptation
D.the fabric of your life

118. What you choose to perceive is determined by _____.
A.your current state of satisfaction or deprivation
B.your personality
C.your interests
D.all of these options

119. The malleus, incus, and stapes are also called _____.
A.the ossicles
B.the tiniest bones in the body
C.the hammer, anvil, and stirrup
D.all of these options

120. When you have a cold and your nose is congested, which senses are most affected?
A.smell and taste
B.the chemical senses
C.both of these options
D.none of these options

121. A desire or craving to achieve the effects produced by a drug is called _____.
A.drug independence
B.psychological dependence
C.psychological addiction
D.drug addiction

122. Drug abuse requires that the drug user _____.
A.use a substance that causes emotional or physical harm to him- or herself or to others
B.develop a tolerance to the substance being abused
C.develop an addiction to the substance being abused
D.use drugs daily

123. In mid-sentence, your friend suddenly slumps over on the couch and appears to have entered the REM-stage of sleep. Which of the following is the BEST explanation for your friend's behavior?
A.Your friend suffers from epilepsy, and just had a seizure.
B.Your friend suffers from narcolepsy and should seek medical attention.
C.You are boring, and should take a class in social speaking skills.
D.Your friend did not get enough sleep last night, and should go to bed.

124. Narcotics are used to achieve _____.
A.pain relief
B.feelings of relaxation and euphoria
C.a sense of contentment and a rosy picture of reality
D.all of these options

125. Which of the following physiological processes can be changed during meditation?
A.sweat gland activity, brain waves, and oxygen consumption
B.heart rate and blood pressure
C.both of these options
D.none of these options

126. LSD _____.
A.is rarely used "regularly" or abused
B.is increasingly used by high school and college students
C.can be extremely dangerous, leading to accidents, death, suicide
D.all of these options

127. Matt has no trouble falling asleep, but wakes up many times at night gasping for air, and feels tired and sleepy the next day. He is MOST likely suffering from _____.
A.night terrors
C.sleep apnea

128. Drugs that change behavior, mental processes, and conscious experience are called _____.
D.mind altering

129. The repair/restoration theory of sleep says that sleep serves _____.
A.a recuperative function, following depletion of key brain and body mechanisms
B.as a means of protecting animals from predators, and restoring the balance of nature
C.to conserve energy for use the following day
D.to repair damage done to the endocrine system of the body

130. Which of the following drugs has the American Medical Association called the most dangerous and physically damaging of all psychoactive drugs?

131. Research on marijuana has found which of the following effects?
A.It is helpful, and has no negative effects.
B.Benefits are only related to the placebo effect.
C.It can impair memory and learning, impair lung functioning and the immune response, and decrease testosterone levels and reduce sperm.
D.It has no addictive properties, and no effects on the brain.

132. Your assignment in Journalism 101 is to research hypnosis. Which of the following statements would be most ACCURATE to include in your report?
A.People can be hypnotized against their will if the hypnotist is good enough.
B.When under hypnosis, a person will comply with any suggestion from the hypnotist, including one which goes against their deeply held moral beliefs.
C.Some parts of a person's recall memory may be improved, but the number of errors made under hypnosis increases.
D.People under hypnosis can do things that require superhuman strength, while people who are not hypnotized cannot.

133. _____ can be deadly, and is the most widely used drug in Western societies.
D.none of these options

134. The persistent inability to fall or stay asleep, or awakening too early is a symptom of _____.
C.sleep apnea

135. The theory of sleep that BEST explains why bears hibernate all winter is the _____.
A.evolutionary/circadian theory
B.restoration/repair theory
C.restoration/evolution theory
D.reproductive/repair theory

136. The idea that dreams are the by-product of random stimulation of brain cells, and that the brain attempts to combine this stimulation into a coherent pattern, is known as the _____ hypothesis of dreaming.
D.brain stimulation

137. _____ is the development of decreasing sensitivity to a drug because of continued use.
C.Drug abuse

138. The information processing theory of dreaming suggests that _____.
A.dreams are a form of thinking during sleep
B.dreams help us sift through and sort out our everyday experiences
C.dreams are mysterious messages from random brain stimulation and unconscious desires that need to be cognitively considered
D.none of these options

139. Mental activities that require focused attention are called _____, while mental activities that require minimal attention are called _____.
A.thinking processes; daydreaming
B.controlled processes; automatic processes
C.thinking processes; autonomic processes
D.controlled processes; autonomic processes

140. Which of the following is TRUE about prescription drugs for insomnia?
A.They are usually barbiturates or tranquilizers.
B.They decrease REM and Stage 4 sleep.
C.There is a danger of developing psychological or physical dependency on them.
D.all of these options

141. Research on sleep deprivation has found which of the following to be TRUE for MOST people who are deprived of sleep for a prolonged period?
A.reduced concentration, and reduced cortisol levels
B.incoherence and psychotic reactions
C.mood alterations and reduced motor skills
D.severe mental illness

142. Just before sleep, brain waves move from _____ waves, indicating normal wakefulness, to _____ waves associated with drowsy relaxation.
A.beta; alpha
B.theta; delta
C.alpha; beta
D.sigma; chi

143. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the differences between psychological and physical drug dependence?
A.Physical dependence is much harder to treat than psychological dependence.
B.Psychological dependence never gets out of control.
C.Psychological dependence can be strong enough to cause an "addict" to return to drug use after physical dependence has been overcome.
D.Physiological dependence cannot occur unless psychological dependence is present.

144. The ______ content of a dream contains the surface symbols that disguise the underlying meaning of the dream; while the _____ content of a dream is the true, unconscious meaning of the dream.
A.repressed; expressed
B.transference; countertransference
C.manifest; latent
D.repressed; latent

145. A drug that has the same molecular shape as a naturally occurring neurotransmitter can fill the receptor site and mimic the neurotransmitter's action. This is called _____.
A.an alpha drug
B.an agonist
C.a psychoactive drug
D.a synthesizer

146. Depressants include all of the following EXCEPT _____.
A.downers such as sedatives, barbiturates, antianxiety drugs
D.Valium, Seconal

147. _____ is a brain chemical that may help regulate sleep.

148. Which of the following statements about alcohol is FALSE?
A.it has stimulating effects at low doses
B.it sedates or slows the body and brain down at higher doses
C.at high levels (> 0.5%) it can cause a coma or death
D.all of these options are true

149. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
A.Everyone needs eight hours of sleep each night.
B.Most people never dream.
C.Sexual arousal during sleep can occur without having a sexual dream.
D.Dying in your dream can be fatal.

150. Which of the following adults will have a higher blood alcohol level?
A.Olga drinks about one ounce in a half-hour
B.Melissa drinks two ounces over four hours
C.Dennis drinks about one ounce in a half-hour
D.David drinks about two ounces over four hours

151. Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence of sleep stages?
A.non-REM ® Stages 1-2-3-4 ® REM
B.hypnogogic ® Stages 1-2-3-4 ® REM ® Stages 4-3-2-1
C.hypnogogic ® Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 ® REM
D.non-REM ® Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 ® REM

152. Concerning the biological causes of sleep, researchers have found that _____.
A.two neurotransmitters (serotonin and histamine) are associated with sleep
B.there are various brain areas and several neurotransmitters that control the sleep-wake cycle
C.the ARAS is the only area responsible for the sleep-wake cycle
D.the "Morpheus area" for sleep is next to Broca's area in the frontal lobe

153. _____ are bad dreams that occur near the end of the sleep cycle during REM sleep, whereas _____ occur early in the sleep cycle during non-REM sleep and are characterized by a state of panic.
A.Nightmares; narcoleptic fits
B.Night terrors; nightmares
C.Night terrors; apnea episodes
D.Nightmares; night terrors

154. A drug that has a shape similar to, but not exactly like, a naturally occurring neurotransmitter can fill the receptor site and block the action of the neurotransmitter at that site. This is called _____.
A.a beta drug
B.a psychoantagonistic drug
C.a de-activator
D.an antagonist

155. The sleep stage marked by irregular breathing, eye movements, high-frequency brain waves, and dreaming is called _____ sleep.

156. Jordan is in the first stage of sleep. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of her consciousness at this time?
A.a ringing telephone could easily awaken her
B.she is experiencing alpha brain waves
C.her breathing is regular
D.her heart rate and blood pressure are slowing

157. Biological rhythms that occur on a daily basis are called _____ rhythms.

158. The _____ state occurs at the beginning of sleep when you may experience visual, auditory, and kinesthetic sensations.

159. Freud believed that dreams were the "royal road to the _____."
A.therapeutic alliance
C.latent content

160. Which of the following is characteristic of Stages 3 and 4 sleep?
A.very slow, high-amplitude delta waves
B.vivid story-like dreams
C.the brain is most receptive to foreign language or other learning tapes
D.all of these options

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