1. What type of clinician would be most likely to say this? "Tell me about how your parents cared for and protected you."
C.cognitive clinician
D.sociocultural clinician

2. Which of the following would be an emotional symptom of depression?
A.lack of desire to eat
B.a negative view of oneself
C.experiences of sadness and anger
D.staying in bed for hours during the day

3. Which theoretical orientation would this research finding support? Depressed people choose more pessimistic and self-deprecating statements in a story-telling test.

4. Milder forms of bipolar disorders are known as ___________ disorders

5. A milder pattern of mood swings that does not reach the severity of bipolar disorder but does include brief depressive and manic episodes is called
D.anxiety disorder

6. Family pedigree and twin studies have been used to look for a genetic predisposition for unipolar depression. These studies have found
A.a lower rate of unipolar depression among children of parents with this disorder.
B.a higher than expected rate of depression among the families of depressed patients.
C.high rates of unipolar depression among dizygotic twins but not among monozygotic twins.
D.no compelling evidence for depression to be found in relatives of a depressed individual.

7. The person associated with the learned helplessness theory of depression is

8. Judith is currently experiencing a period of sadness that interferes with her ability to go to work and to take care of her children. It has lasted now for three weeks, and she has experienced similar episodes in the past. What type of major depression would she most likely be diagnosed with?

9. Bipolar disorders have recently been linked to
A.GABA depletion.
B.excessive serotonin.
C.improper sodium transport.
D.excessive neuronal lithium.

10. Which of the following risk percentage patterns would best support the influence of genetic factors in explaining bipolar disorder? ________ in the general population; _________ among close relatives of people with bipolar disorder; _________ among identical twins of people with bipolar disorder
A.10%, 10%, 10%
B.40%, 10%, 1%
C.40%, 40%, 40%
D.1%, 10%, 40%

11. Depression occurs either when a loved one is lost or when a person experiences imagined or symbolic loss. This explanation for the onset of depression is proposed by
A.humanist theorists.
B.cognitive theorists.
C.behavioral theorists.
D.psychodynamic theorists.

12. What type of clinician would be most likely to say this? "Tell me about any early losses you experienced."
C.cognitive clinician
D.sociocultural clinician

13. Although initially thought to be due to an excessive amount of a particular neurotransmitter, mania has been found to be due to low levels of this neurotransmitter. Which neurotransmitter is this?

14. A baby who was separated from its mother at birth, and who subsequently became withdrawn, sad, and tearful, could be experiencing
A.postpartum depression.
B.posttraumatic depression syndrome.
C.anaclitic depression.
D.dysthymic depression.

15. The experience of a lack of desire to engage in sexual activity with one's spouse would be considered a(n) __________ symptom of depression.

16. A person displaying sadness, lack of energy, headaches, and feelings of low self-worth is showing all of the following symptoms except ________ symptoms.

17. The hormone that appears involved in seasonal affective disorder is

18. Jamal is experiencing a major depressive episode that appears to have begun three weeks ago. He is miserable and suffers from at least five symptoms of depression. No unusually stressful events have occurred in the past year. Based on these data, the diagnosis would be
A.postpartum depression.
B.reactive depression.
C.exogenous depression.
D.endogenous depression.

19. A depressed person who is confused, unable to remember things, and unable to solve problems is suffering from ________ symptoms.

20. Which theoretical orientation would this research finding support? Depressed people show an internal/global/stable pattern of attribution on a questionnaire.

21. Dana is depressed and has been for a while. He, his twin brother, his mother, and his father all participate in family pedigree study. Identify the proband(s) in this study.
B.Dana's twin
C.both parents
D.both Dana and his twin

22. What type of clinician would be most likely to say this? "Tell me about your different life responsibilities and how valuable you feel each is."
C.cognitive clinician
D.sociocultural clinician

23. Which of the following is the least common form of a mood disorder?
A.full manic and full depressive episodes
B.swinging from manic to depressive symptoms on the same day
C.full manic episodes with no depressive episodes
D.full depressive episodes with no manic episodes

24. The chief difference between mood disorders and normal mood fluctuation is
A.the particular medication used to treat the problem.
B.the cause of the problem.
C.the intensity and duration of the problem.
D.the demographic characteristics of the person.

25. What would be the most appropriate diagnosis for a person who experienced a major depressive episode, without having any history of mania, and is either immobile or excessively active?
A.recurrent depression
B.seasonal depression
C.catatonic depression
D.melancholic depression

26. If we ultimately find that people with unipolar depression have certain biochemical characteristics, certain cognitive characteristics, and certain life stressors, then we will have evidence
A.that a single factor causes depression.
B.that different factors cause depression in different people.
C.that an interaction between factors causes depression.
D.that different factors are related to the cause, course, and treatment of depression.

27. Depression is more common in women because they experience more taxing life situations, such as poverty and menial jobs, than men. This is the
A.self-blame theory.
B.artifact theory.
C.quality-of-life theory.
D.lack-of-control theory

28. The experience of feeling like weeping constantly would be considered a(n) __________ symptom of depression.

29. In general, object relations theorists follow which theoretical perspective?

30. Children who were separated from their mothers at an early age were more likely than other children to experience weepiness, passivity, and withdrawal. This reaction, seen in children who are separated from their mothers up to the age of 6, has been called _______.
C.insecure attachment
D.anaclitic depression

31. Second messengers are
A.related to the action of lithium on neurotransmitters.
B.related to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
C.important in increasing the effectiveness of tricyclics.
D.used by therapists when treating couples.

32. If a person taking lithium began experiencing nausea, vomiting, sluggishness, tremors, and seizure, one would suspect
A.the person was not experiencing bipolar disorder.
B.the person was experiencing lithium intoxication.
C.the dose was too low.
D.the person needs adjunctive therapy.

33. Researchers were searching for drugs to treat schizophrenia when they came across imipramine, which alleviated the symptoms of depression, although it was not effective against schizophrenia. It became the first of a class of drugs, all sharing a similar molecular structure, called
D.MAO inhibitors.

34. The major present-day indication for the use of ECT as a treatment for depression is
A.when the patient requests it.
B.when the patient is judged not competent to refuse it.
C.when a severely depressed patient does not respond to other therapies.
D.when a severely depressed patient suggests the possibility of suicide.

35. A large-scale NIMH comparison study of cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and antidepressant drug therapy showed that
A.placebo therapy (attention from a therapist) was as effective as the other therapies tested.
B.about 75% of patients who completed treatment showed marked improvement.
C.during the final four weeks of treatment, the therapies were equally effective.
D.psychodynamic therapists were criticized for failing to participate in the study.

36. If you were a psychologist with a typical caseload of clients, about what percentage of your clients would be likely experience unipolar depression?

37. Lithium has been found to
A.be useful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.
B.enhance the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs in unipolar depression.
C.increase the effectiveness of drugs used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D.be more effective in treating bipolar disorder when used in conjunction with ECT than when used alone.

38. What do psychodynamic therapists believe is the cause of unipolar depression?
A.repression of feelings of inadequacy
B.a biological imbalance in neurotransmitters
C.unconscious grieving over real or imagined loss
D.projection of internal anxiety onto a loved object

39. Electroconvulsive therapy
A.appears to be more effective in cases of severe depression.
B.can cause memory loss and neurological damage.
C.causes the patient to have a brain seizure.
D.all of the above.

40. A person experiencing unipolar depression writes the following in a journal. "Go to store, doctor's appointment, and museum. Read novel. Clean room." What treatment approach is this person likely receiving?
A.psychodynamic therapy
B.behavioral therapy
C.interpersonal therapy
D.adjunctive therapy

41. The treatment of what disease led to the development of MAO inhibitors?
D.high blood pressure

42. Which of the following is most likely to elevate the mood in a depressed person?
A.inhibition of serotonin synthesis
B.a decrease in the levels of brain serotonin
C.an increase in the levels of brain norepinephrine
D.blocking synaptic transmission at norepinephrine synapses

43. About what percentage of people with mood disorders do not improve with treatment?

44. MAO inhibitors are biochemical agents that alleviate depressive symptoms in approximately half of the clinically depressed patients who take them. What is the mechanism of action of these drugs?
A.They stimulate serotonin production.
B.They block synapses that release norepinephrine.
C.They interfere with the destruction of norepinephrine.
D.They raise the levels of monoamine oxidase in the brain.

45. MAO inhibitors work by
A.blocking MAO from breaking down norepinephrine.
B.raising the level of the production of MAO.
C.lowering the level of tyramine, found in cheese and wine.
D.interacting with the production of amphetamines.

46. A person who displays extreme shyness and insensitivity to others is showing signs of
A.interpersonal loss.
B.interpersonal role dispute.
C.interpersonal role transition.
D.interpersonal deficits.

47. Personal Effectiveness Training focuses on
A.keeping a journal of positive activities.
B.encouraging family members to attend therapy.
C.improving social skills in a group setting.
D.becoming aware of depressed behaviors.

48. Which interpersonal problem area identified by interpersonal psychotherapists is most like the cause of depression suggested by psychoanalysis?
A.interpersonal loss.
B.interpersonal deficits.
C.interpersonal role dispute.
D.interpersonal role transition.

49. Which of the following is a correct match?
A.MAO inhibitor and parnate
B.tricyclic and nardil
C.tricyclic and prozac
D.second-generation antidepressants and tofranil

50. In order to effectively reduce the chances of relapse of depressive symptoms, patients should
A.take a larger dose of tricyclics than necessary for relief of symptoms.
B.continue to take tricyclics after they are symptom free.
C.gradually taper the dose of tricyclics once they are symptom free.
D.take MAO inhibitors along with tricyclics.

51. Which of the following is important in using contingency management effectively?
A.Increase the total number of activities, both positive and negative, so the person can learn to tell the difference.
B.Make sure that the person receives reinforcement for engaging in positive activities.
C.Be sure the person receives feedback from a group regarding which activities are positive and which are negative.
D.Develop ways for the person to express depressed feelings through journal writing.

52. A large-scale NIMH comparison study of cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and antidepressant drug therapy showed that
A.cognitive therapy works more quickly than drug therapy.
B.drug therapy was better than cognitive therapy at preventing relapse.
C.interpersonal therapy was the least effective.
D.the three therapies were equally effective at reducing depressive symptoms.

53. Learning new social skills by taking turns practicing in a group environment is a component of
A.a reattribution technique.
B.contingency management.
C.interpersonal psychotherapy.
D.personal effectiveness training.

54. In cognitive behavior therapy, the process of altering or challenging primary attitudes is similar to
A.increasing daily activities.
B.conducting an experiment.
C.identifying distorted thinking.
D.increasing positive reinforcements.

55. Rosita swings between periods of bottomless depressions and high-flying enthusiasm. She never hits the middle. Her physician is most likely to recommend treatment with

56. Today, electroconvulsive therapy
A.is more likely to involve the use of insulin than shock.
B.also involves the use of muscle relaxants.
C.is given without anesthetic to reduce memory loss.
D.is more likely to involve bilateral shock.

57. If your therapist tried to reintroduce you to pleasurable activities, reinforced nondepressive actions, and improved your social skills, your therapist would be using
A.psychodynamic therapy.
B.behavioral therapy.
C.cognitive therapy.
D.sociocultural therapy.

58. Free association, interpretation of associations, and dream interpretation are all techniques used primarily by
A.interpersonal therapists.
B.cognitive therapists.
C.couples therapists.
D.psychodynamic therapists.

59. The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy for unipolar depression is limited because
A.it lasts for a shorter amount of time than other therapies, giving patients less time to make progress.
B.depressed patients may not have the energy to engage in a verbal approach that depends on the development of insight.
C.very few depressed people have experienced a real or imagined (symbolic) loss.
D.psychodynamic therapists do not believe that they are able to evaluate whether their patients are making progress or not.

60. Which of the following is an example of an aspect of psychoanalytic therapy for depression?
A.A therapist questions a client about losses she may have suffered in her past.
B.Every time Keith says anything even a little positive to his therapist, the therapist smiles.
C.The therapist questions a client about the frequency and nature of her daily activities, including those that give her pleasure.
D.The therapist attacks the irrationality of a client's beliefs about himself.

61. When a rash of suicides occurs in the aftermath of a celebrity's suicide or a case that has been highly publicized by the media, behavioral theorists believe it is attributable to
C.folie a deux.

62. Which of Shneidman's categories do most people generally believe that the majority of children who commit suicide belong in?
A.death darers
B.death seekers
C.death ignorers
D.death initiators

63. Commonly observed triggers for suicide include all of the following except
A.being in therapy.
B.heavy alcohol use.
C.modeling of someone who committed suicide.
D.stressful life events.

64. At a suicide prevention center, you hear the following from the counselor. Which one of the goals and techniques does it best represent? "Who can you think of who might be able to come over and stay with you for a few hours?"
A.assessing suicide potential
B.understanding and clarifying the problem
C.establishing a positive relationship
D.assessing and mobilizing the caller's resources

65. The following is most closely related to which explanation of suicide? A grandfather whose wife is no longer living, who lives in a nursing home, who retired 30 years ago, and who rarely sees his children or participates in community activities kills himself.
D.immediate trigger

66. "No neurotic harbors thoughts of suicide which he has not turned back upon himself from murderous impulses against others." This quote would most likely be made by a
A.humanist theorist.
B.cognitive theorist.
C.behavioral theorist.
D.psychodynamic theorist.

67. A society that honors those who kill themselves to defend their families or country, or because of a value they hold dear, would have a higher rate of what Durkheim calls
A.egoistic suicide.
B.altruistic suicide.
C.anomic suicide.
D.intragroup suicide.

68. The mood and thoughts of suicidal people are most often characterized as
A.anxious and irrational.
B.angry and aggressive.
C.sad and hopeless.
D.tense and manic.

69. Who of the following has two positive risk factors for suicide?
A.a devout woman
B.a married man
C.a divorced woman
D.an atheist man

70. According to the World Health Organization, how many deaths occur by suicide each year around the world?

71. Treatment for suicide attempters
A.appears not to be effective.
B.typically involves medical and psychological care.
C.is provided in about 90% of cases.
D.shows that the cognitive group method is most successful.

72. Biological researchers have found a link between suicide and
A.low levels of serotonin.
B.high levels of serotonin dopamine.
C.high levels of 5-hydroxyindoleactic acid.
D.elevated number of imipramine receptor sites.

73. What has been claimed to be a reason the suicide rate among elderly Native Americans is low?
A.religious fervor
B.overcoming the rage of youth
C.the value the culture places on the elderly
D.this group overall has a very low suicide rate compared to whites

74. Retrospective analysis involves
A.interviewing those thought to be at high risk for suicide.
B.developing a suicide profile, especially for mental patients and prisoners.
C.studying people who survive suicide attempts.
D.gathering information about a suicide victim's past.

75. The following is an example of what Shneidman refers to as a ______________. Ambivalent about dying, Jay repeatedly played a dangerous game involving gas and a cigarette lighter.
A.death seeker
B.death initiator
C.death ignorer
D.death darer

76. Gloria has been contemplating suicide for several weeks. She decides one day, with great intention, clarity, and commitment, that she will kill herself. Within minutes, she has successfully committed suicide. According to Shneidman, Gloria is a
A.death darer.
B.death seeker.
C.death ignorer.
D.death initiator.

77. A suicide note cites ill health and loneliness as the reason for the suicide. The writer is most likely
A.younger than 40.
B.40 to 49 years old.
C.50 to 59 years old.
D.over 60 years of age.

78. According to Shneidman, how do death darers primarily differ from other categories?
A.They are ambivalent about their deaths.
B.They intend to end their lives with their action.
C.They believe that death will not end their existence.
D.They believe they are merely speeding up an ongoing process.

79. The following is an example of what Shneidman refers to as a ______________. Knowing she was terminally ill, Bonnie swallowed a handful of barbiturates in order to save herself and her family from the final painful months of her life.
A.death seeker
B.death initiator
C.death ignorer
D.death darer

80. The most helpful explanation for suicide, particularly regarding the general background factors and triggers of suicides, comes from the __________ perspective.

81. When answering the telephone of a suicide hot line, the first step for the counselor is to
A.formulate a plan.
B.establish a positive relationship.
C.understand and clarify the problem.
D.assess the caller's suicide potential.

82. A suicide note cites an inability to cope with life as the reason for the suicide. The writer is most likely
A.younger than 40.
B.40 to 49 years old.
C.50 to 59 years old.
D.over 60 years of age.

83. About how many suicides are committed annually in the United States?

84. Limitations that make research on suicide difficult include all but which of the following?
A.Good sources of information (suicide notes, therapy reports on those who have committed suicide) are often not available.
B.Grieving family members probably are not able to provide especially objective information to researchers.
C.People who survive suicide might be very different from those who don't.
D.Suicide is probably such a personal decision that there are few commonalties among those who kill themselves.

85. Given the research on suicide, which of the following would be the most surprising (inconsistent with research results) case?
A.a woman who stabbed and then hung herself
B.a woman who attempted suicide but did not succeed
C.a man who shot himself
D.a woman who killed herself with a drug overdose

86. A study of suicide among cancer patients in Sweden found that two-thirds of them
A.had just been diagnosed.
B.were relatively early in the process of the disease.
C.were in the middle stages of the disease and had not yet lost much functioning.
D.were in the advanced stages of the disease with severe symptoms.

87. The following is most closely related to which explanation of suicide? A young man whose father and uncle committed suicide at about his age also commits suicide.
D.immediate trigger

88. Which of the following does not make one at higher risk for suicide?
A.having family members who have committed suicide.
B.learning about suicide in abnormal psychology
C.having an alcohol abuse problem
D.experiencing uncontrollable and repeated stressful events

89. Suicide prevention centers
A.are run on the AA model, using suicide survivors.
B.are hospitals for those who have attempted suicide.
C.deliver services over the phone using paraprofessionals.
D.are declining in number in the United States

90. In research on the relationship between serotonin and suicide, serotonin seems most related to

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