1. "It is clear that very demanding parents caused this person to develop paranoid personality disorder." This quote most likely would come from one with which theoretical position?
A.cognitive
B.behavioral
C.sociocultural
D.psychodynamic


2. The type of therapy that generally provides the least help for those with schizoid personality disorder is
A.behavioral.
B.drug.
C.cognitive.
D.None of the above provide help for those with schizoid personality disorder.


3. The term co-morbidity means that
A.one disorder may develop into another.
B.one disorder automatically implies the other.
C.two disorders may occur together in an individual.
D.the appearance of one disorder implies the disappearance of the one that preceded it.


4. When the seat belt light in DiDi's car stays on for a few extra seconds, she bursts into tears. She always craves attention and reacts to even the smallest event with an elaborate show of emotion. She probably could receive a diagnosis of
A.obsessive personality disorder.
B.antisocial personality disorder.
C.histrionic personality disorder.
D.narcissistic personality disorder.


5. Which of the following statements regarding the treatment of paranoid personality disorder is most accurate?
A.Drug therapy generally works best.
B.Psychodynamic therapy involving hypnotic regression is often effective.
C.Behavioral therapy usually works well, and in relatively few sessions.
D.Most therapies are of limited effectiveness, and progress slowly.


6. Two individuals are in the same room; one has been diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder, the other with schizotypal personality disorder. If the diagnoses are accurate, you could tell the two apart because the individual with schizotypal personality disorder
A.seems uncomfortable in the presence of others.
B.would be less likely to claim to have ESP.
C.would be more likely to dress in a odd array of clothes.
D.would be less likely to have a severe disorder.


7. A biological cause implicated in borderline personality disorder is
A.enlarged ventricles.
B.reduced levels of dopamine.
C.decreased levels of serotonin.
D.elevated levels of acetylcholine.


8. A person experiencing paranoid personality disorder frequently says things like "You've got to get them before they get you," and "People have been sinners since the Garden of Eden." If these sayings reflect maladaptive assumptions the person has about people in general, the theorist who would be least surprised would have which theoretical position?
A.cognitive
B.biological
C.sociocultural
D.psychodynamic


9. A child who is severely criticized for acting independently, and who is praised for doing exactly what parents say to do, later develops dependent personality disorder. The therapist who would be least surprised by this outcome would have which theoretical orientation?
A.sociocultural
B.behavioral
C.cognitive
D.psychodynamic


10. "The problem with many people experiencing schizoid personality disorder is that they really don't know who they are, and cannot comfort themselves." The author of this statement most likely would have which theoretical background?
A.cognitive
B.behavioral
C.cognitive-behavioral
D.none of the above


11. Psychodynamic theorists explain obsessive-compulsive personality disorder as a fixation at the _________ stage.
A.oral
B.anal
C.phallic
D.genital


12. According to psychodynamic theorists, an important factor in the development of avoidant personality disorder is
A.an early sense of guilt.
B.early experiences of shame.
C.lack of development of trust.
D.an inability to express anger.


13. One who sets fires primarily for the pleasure or tension relief the fire setting provides is a(n)
A.arsonist.
B.pyromaniac.
C.trichotillomaniac.
D.kleptomaniac.


14. A person who is least likely to be affected by criticism from other people is one suffering from the __________ personality disorder.
A.avoidant
B.schizoid
C.paranoid
D.obsessive-compulsive


15. A person who does poorly on a task called backward masking is most likely to be experiencing
A.schizoid personality disorder.
B.paranoid personality disorder.
C.borderline personality disorder.
D.schizotypal personality disorder.


16. An individual has just received a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder. That individual is most likely to have a parent or sibling who has
A.bipolar disorder.
B.schizophrenia.
C.one of the paraphilias.
D.alcoholism.


17. "It is obvious that this case of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder arises from an early childhood fixation." Which type of psychologist would most likely have made that statement?
A.behavioral
B.cognitive
C.sociocultural
D.psychodynamic


18. Ben set up an elaborate scheme to mine gold in the Rockies. He had a large town meeting and made a presentation of his stock. The shares were only $5 each, and everyone could afford them. He showed pictures of the mine and explained how the company expected to gross $100 million each month. As it turns out, he was a terrific con artist who had made several "successful" proposals such as this in towns across American in the last couple of years. He is most likely suffering from
A.paranoid personality disorder.
B.antisocial personality disorder.
C.narcissistic personality disorder.
D.obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.


19. Bertha pulls her hair out of a spot on the top of her head. She appears to be bald there. This is a symptom of an impulse-control disorder called
A.pyromania.
B.kleptomania.
C.trichotillomania.
D.intermittent explosive disorder.


20. Most types of treatment with histrionic patients focus on developing
A.independence from other people.
B.an ability to relate to other people.
C.greater reliance on guidance by parents.
D.empathetic understanding of others' feelings.


21. The fact that those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder often were neglected, rejected, or sexually abused as children is best predicted by which view?
A.cognitive
B.biological
C.psychodynamic
D.sociocultural


22. The most important similarity among the personality disorders listed in the text is that
A.disorders of thought, perception, and attention are present.
B.the personality traits are limited to discrete periods of illness.
C.they are inflexible, maladaptive, and related to impaired functioning or distress.
D.they are social in that they involve an inability to form lasting relationships with other people.


23. The highest percentage of people with which of the following personality disorders would seek treatment on their own?
A.borderline
B.histrionic
C.antisocial
D.All of the above would seek help about equally often.


24. Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding antisocial personality disorder?
A.Most who have it are not treated, and most who are treated are not helped much.
B.Most who have it are not treated, but most who are treated are helped substantially.
C.Most who have it are treated, but most who are treated are not helped much.
D.Most who have it are treated, and most who are treated are helped substantially.


25. Gort's parents never quite liked him. They probably did not want children in the first place. He just was not accepted. It was clear early in school that he had a low opinion of himself. He also did not know how to interact with the other children. When they made fun of him, he buckled. This is a description of the possible development of
A.histrionic personality disorder.
B.avoidant personality disorder.
C.schizoid personality disorder.
D.borderline personality disorder.


26. A client being treated for avoidant personality disorder must increase the number of social contacts per day-defined as people greeted with at least the phrase, "Hello: How are you doing?"-in order later to engage in some desired activity. Most likely, the therapist has which theoretical background?
A.psychodynamic
B.cognitive
C.behavioral
D.sociocultural


27. If parents excessively reinforce clinging and punish attempts at independence, the result might be the development of
A.paranoid personality disorder.
B.borderline personality disorder.
C.dependent personality disorder.
D.narcissistic personality disorder.


28. A recent immigrant to the United States grew up parentless in a war zone, and was physically abused in several of the families who took care of the immigrant during childhood. This background puts the immigrant at greatly increased risk of developing
A.antisocial personality disorder.
B.borderline personality disorder.
C.a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


29. The type of therapist most likely to try to help people diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder to believe they are not helpless, and to teach them better thinking skills, is
A.psychodynamic.
B.cognitive.
C.sociocultural.
D.behavioral.


30. Assertiveness training would be most often effective in the treatment of which personality disorder?
A.obsessive-compulsive
B.antisocial
C.borderline
D.dependent


31. An individual diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder reports having a great deal of difficulty figuring out how others feel, and as a child had difficulty developing adequate language skills. These findings would make the most sense to a theorist with which background?
A.psychodynamic
B.sociocultural
C.cognitive
D.biological


32. Close relatives of females with dependent personality disorder were more likely than close relatives of males with the disorder to experience
A.panic disorders.
B.manic disorders.
C.depressive disorders.
D.generalized anxiety disorder.


33. In role-playing situations, subjects with paranoid personality disorder generally interpret ambiguous behavior as
A.angry.
B.hostile.
C.confusing.
D.contradictory.


34. Which of the following statements is most accurate, in terms of present research findings?
A."Odd" personality disorders cause schizophrenia.
B."Odd" personality disorders are caused by schizophrenia.
C."Odd" personality disorders and schizophrenia are related to one another.
D."Odd" personality disorders and schizophrenia are not related to each other.


35. Studies of those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder show that
A.less than half attempt suicide, and almost none succeed.
B.less than half attempt suicide, but over 5% succeed.
C.over half attempt suicide, but almost none succeed.
D.over half attempt suicide, and over 5% succeed.


36. The most difficult personality disorder to treat appears to be the
A.histrionic personality disorder.
B.antisocial personality disorder.
C.dependent personality disorder.
D.obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.


37. Like those with paranoid personality disorder, those with avoidant personality disorder usually
A.are very sensitive to criticism.
B.avoid close relationships.
C.a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


38. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is most common among
A.unemployed women.
B.women with jobs.
C.unemployed men.
D.men with jobs.


39. Sarah is a real hedonist, even when it is short-lived and results in punishment. She respects none of society's boundaries and is egocentric and insensitive to other people. She does not consider the consequences of her actions. She experiences
A.schizoid personality disorder.
B.antisocial personality disorder.
C.histrionic personality disorder.
D.schizotypal personality disorder.


40. One similarity of those experiencing paranoid personality disorder and those experiencing schizoid personality disorder is that they tend
A.not to have close ties to others.
B.to prefer to be alone.
C.to be described by others as arrogant and angry.
D.not to score well on typical intelligence tests.


41. Keira is painfully uncertain of herself, her image, her sexual orientation, her life goals, and her values. She feels empty and bored and is prone to depression and impulsive behavior. She most likely should be diagnosed as having a
A.histrionic personality disorder.
B.borderline personality disorder.
C.depressive personality disorder.
D.narcissistic personality disorder.


42. The personality disorder that is most often associated with criminal behavior is the
A.histrionic personality disorder.
B.antisocial personality disorder.
C.borderline personality disorder.
D.narcissistic personality disorder.


43. Group therapy is particularly useful in the treatment of avoidant personality disorder primarily because group therapy
A.allows those in the group to see that others have avoidant personality disorder, too.
B.involves an eclectic combination of theoretical approaches.
C.provides practice in social interactions.
D.requires attendance at therapy sessions.


44. Which of the following statements would be most accurate regarding schizoid personality disorder?
A."She is what I would call a loner."
B."He is what I would call a loner."
C."She gets angry easily, and hardly ever happy."
D."He gets angry easily, and is hardly ever happy."


45. The continuing pattern of inner experiences and behavior that is unique to each individual is termed
A.a trait.
B.character.
C.personality.
D.individuality.


46. Cognitive therapy for avoidant personality disorder focuses on
A.providing practice in social behaviors in a group setting.
B.increasing the client's tolerance of emotional discomfort and building up his or her self-image.
C.providing social skills training and exposure treatment that requires clients to gradually increase their social contacts.
D.helping patients uncover the origins of their symptoms and resolve the unconscious conflicts that may be operating.


47. Elena can't seem to establish social ties because she is afraid of being embarrassed or appearing foolish. She is easily hurt by criticism and is not willing to go into unfamiliar situations. She may be experiencing
A.paranoid personality disorder.
B.avoidant personality disorder.
C.histrionic personality disorder.
D.narcissistic personality disorder.


48. You might suspect borderline personality disorder as a possible diagnosis if a client
A.had trouble making up his or her mind ("It's all gray to me.").
B.recently used self-mutilation to try to preserve a relationship.
C.a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


49. The consistencies of one's personality are called
A.inherited characteristics.
B.learned responses.
C.personality traits.
D.personality typologies.


50. A high school student asks a guidance counselor, parents, and friends for suggestions before deciding on a college to attend, and on an academic major. This student's behavior is
A.typical of those with dependent personality disorder.
B.typical of those who will develop dependent personality disorder.
C.normal for those in high school.
D.reflective of an anxiety disorder, not of dependent personality disorder.


51. Gary's speech does not make sense. His sentences are long and wandering. You cannot follow his train of thought. He may be displaying
A.illusions.
B.digressive speech.
C.ideas of reference.
D.expressive language.


52. Although those with paranoid personality disorder often are deeply suspicious, their suspicions usually do not
A.threaten their interpersonal relationships.
B.become delusional.
C.result in anger.
D.involve those with whom they work.


53. Recently, the percentage of women diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder has declined to about equal the percentage of men receiving the same diagnosis. This decline has most likely occurred because
A.diagnoses are less gender-biased than they used to be.
B.diagnoses are more gender-biased than they used to be.
C.more women are in the workforce, decreasing the number of "hysterical wife" cases.
D.more men are taking increased responsibility for childrearing.


54. A person who is inhibited in social situations, feels inadequate, and is very sensitive to criticism may be experiencing
A.paranoid personality disorder.
B.avoidant personality disorder.
C.histrionic personality disorder.
D.narcissistic personality disorder.


55. Compared with those with "odd" personality disorders, those with "dramatic" personality disorders
A.are more likely to wear odd assortments of clothing.
B.are more common in prison populations.
C.a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


56. The "flower children" of the 1960s and 1970s have sometimes been called the "me" generation, reflecting the supposed self-centered individualism of the time. If this is true, a sociocultural theorist would predict a larger than usual percentage of which kind of personality disorder among the aging "me" generation?
A.narcissistic
B.antisocial
C.obsessive-compulsive
D.dependent


57. Reese is distrustful of others and reacts quickly to perceived threats. Even though he has no evidence, he is sure his wife is unfaithful. He finds it almost impossible to forgive those he thinks have wronged him. Reese displays the characteristics of the __________ personality disorder.
A.avoidant
B.paranoid
C.narcissistic
D.obsessive-compulsive


58. A therapist treating a client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder worked out the following analysis. The parents probably did not want children in the first place. The child just was not accepted. It was clear early in school that he had a low opinion of himself. He also did not know how to interact with the other children. When they made fun of him, he buckled. The therapist's theoretical orientation is probably
A.behavioral.
B.psychoanalytical.
C.object relations theory.
D.cognitive-behavioral theory.


59. Which of the following disorders is most responsive to drug therapy?
A.avoidant personality disorder
B.schizoid personality disorder
C.paranoid personality disorder
D.schizotypal personality disorder


60. Avoidant personality disorder seems most closely related to
A.schizophrenia and depression.
B.social phobias and depression.
C.generalized anxiety disorder and mania.
D.eating disorders and conversion disorder.


61. "I am the greatest!" a famous boxer declared loudly and often. Had he in fact acted throughout his adult life as though he were the greatest, the most appropriate personality disorder diagnosis would be
A.histrionic.
B.narcissistic.
C.antisocial.
D.impulse-control.


62. A young boy is constantly told by his parents to "Be a man!" whenever he is in conflict with friends. In turn, his parents themselves often act aggressively toward each other, and toward him. The theorist who would be best able to explain an adult diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder for this boy would be
A.behavioral.
B.cognitive.
C.biological.
D.psychodynamic.


63. What is a common reason for the hospitalization of people with borderline personality disorder?
A.They may attempt suicide.
B.They finally cannot care for themselves.
C.They voluntarily ask for hospitalization, out of desperation.
D.They are so afraid of leaving their homes that they suffer social paralysis.


64. The person most likely to abuse alcohol probably experiences _________ personality disorder.
A.no
B.antisocial
C.narcissistic
D.dependent


65. The TV show Saturday Night Live once featured a skit involving an "Anal-Retentive Carpenter," who had to keep all his tools and work materials in just the "right" places, arranged "just so." He was very anxious any time tools and materials were not just as he wanted them. The most appropriate diagnosis for the carpenter would be which personality disorder?
A.obsessive-compulsive
B.borderline
C.histrionic
D.impulse-control


66. Based on a structured interview, Diagnostician A classifies an individual's personality disorder in the "odd" cluster. Based on another structured interview of the same type, Diagnostician B classifies an individual's personality disorder in the "dramatic" cluster. If what is described here is typical of what happens when that variety of structured interview is used, one would say the structured interview has
A.high reliability and high validity.
B.high reliability and low validity.
C.low reliability and high validity.
D.low reliability and low validity.


67. Giving in to a child's refusal to comply with a parental request may inadvertently reinforce stubborn and defiant behavior, setting the scene for the development of antisocial personality disorder. This is most like a ___________ explanation of the development of antisocial personality disorder.
A.cognitive
B.biological
C.behavioral
D.psychodynamic


68. The fact that children who observe parental conflict and aggressiveness are more likely than other children later to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder provides support for
A.psychodynamic theory.
B.behavioral theory
C.a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


69. The disorder that appears to be most closely related to the schizotypal personality disorder is
A.anxiety.
B.schizophrenia.
C.obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D.narcissistic personality disorder.


70. One reason that the personality disorders are difficult to treat is that the afflicted individuals
A.enjoy their symptoms and do not seek change.
B.are frequently unaware that they have a problem.
C.experience no distress and do not want treatment.
D.have accompanying mood disorders that must be treated first.


71. The absence of parental love results in emotional detachment and the use of power to form relationships. This is most like a ___________ explanation of the development of antisocial personality disorder.
A.cognitive
B.biological
C.behavioral
D.psychodynamic


72. Jim is such a perfectionist that he is unable to finish anything. He is governed by rules and details. Jim might be experiencing
A.avoidant personality disorder.
B.antisocial personality disorder.
C.dependent personality disorder.
D.obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.


73. Tangential and overly abstract language with loose associations accompanied by attention and concentration problems are characteristic of
A.schizoid personality disorder.
B.avoidant personality disorder.
C.paranoid personality disorder.
D.schizotypal personality disorder.


74. Assume a study of prison inmates diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder shows that they generally experience less anxiety than other people when they lie or "con" others. This outcome would most strongly support which theoretical position?
A.behavioral
B.psychodynamic
C.cognitive
D.biological


75. Which of the theoretical orientations seems the most gender-biased in its explanation of the development of histrionic personality disorder?
A.cognitive
B.behavioral
C.sociocultural
D.psychodynamic


76. A teenager whose actions and thoughts are often self-centered is
A.likely as an adult to be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (if male).
B.likely as an adult to be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (if female).
C.a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


77. A client being treated for schizotypal personality disorder must show up for therapy appointments on time, dress appropriately, and complete some social skills training. Most likely the theoretical orientation of the therapist is
A.cognitive.
B.psychodynamic.
C.biological.
D.an eclectic combination of sociocultural and psychodynamic.


78. Behavioral and cognitive theorists propose that people who develop narcissistic personality disorder may have been treated
A.too positively in early life.
B.too negatively in early life.
C.a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


79. DSM categorization of personality disorders is difficult because
A.many "symptoms" overlap several categories.
B.those who compile the DSM do not drop personality disorder categories that are not supported by data.
C.a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


80. A "key characteristic" of schizotypal personality disorder is
A.digressive speech.
B.backward masking.
C.ideas of reference.
D.bodily illusions.



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