1. Frederico's doctor has recently told him that he has a terminal illness. Frederico is now very critical of the doctor, and frequently remarks that life is unfair. According to Kubler-Ross, Frederico is MOST likely to be in the _____ stage of coping with his impending death.

2. With regard to personality development, "goodness-of-fit" _____.
A.refers to the correlation between temperament and the social/environmental setting
B.predicts that in most settings, the easy child has an adaptive advantage over the difficult child
C.predicts that difficult babies may be more likely to survive in periods of famine
D.all of these options

3. Which of the following cultures revere the elderly?
A.Japan and China
D.all of these options

4. According to the research, which of the following is NOT true for many children of divorce?
A.Children of divorce demonstrate greater maturity, empathy, and adaptability.
B.Children of divorce have more behavior problems; a poorer self-concept; and more social, psychological, and academic difficulties.
C.EITHER a or b
D.Children of divorce are similar to children of continuously intact families.

5. If you follow the traffic laws and rules because you believe they are legitimate and good for the public welfare, you are demonstrating the _____ stage of moral development at the _____ level.
A.punishment and obedience; preconventional
B.law and order; conventional
C.social contract; postconventional
D.instrumental-exchange; preconventional

6. Which of the following is NOT one of Baumrind's parenting styles?

7. Thornton is easily upset, moody, aggressive, and does not communicate well with peers or adults. According to Baumrind, it is MOST likely that his parents are engaged in _____ parenting.

8. According to Everett and Everett, in a "healthy" divorce, ex-spouses must _____.
A.review what was good about the marriage
B.let go of the relationship
C.find ways to stay connected to their previous social ties
D.assign a primary caregiver for any children that are involved

9. Which of the following is TRUE regarding basic temperament?
A.It tends to be consistent throughout early childhood and into adulthood.
B.It tends to change as children approach adolescence.
C.It tends to change as adolescents approach adulthood.
D.Changes are the result of maturation rather than environment.

10. The police department announces the location where they will be enforcing the speed limit. This announcement is MOST likely to affect people at the _____ level of moral development.
D.social contract

11. You see a slow-moving car up ahead, that has had its left-turn light blinking for the last three miles. You think to yourself, "It must be an old geezer driving that car. They should be outlawed." Your thoughts are an example of _____.
D.all of these options

12. The belief that adult personality reflects how an individual has met or resolved the challenges during eight stages of development is the definition of _____.
A.Erikson's psychosocial stages of development
B.Freud's psychosexual stages of development
C.Thomas and Chess's theory of temperament development
D.Kohlberg's model of moral development

13. Thanatology is the study of _____.
A.diseases among the elderly
B.near death experiences
C.life after death
D.death and dying

14. According to Erikson, humans progress through eight stages of psychosocial development. Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence for the "successful" completion of the first four stages?
A.trust ® autonomy ® industry ® identity
B.autonomy ® initiative ® industry ® identity
C.trust ® autonomy ® initiative ® industry
D.identity ® autonomy ® industry ® initiative

15. Kohlberg believed his stages of moral development to be _____.
A.universal and invariant
B.culturally bound, but variable with the culture
C.universal, but variable within each culture
D.culturally bound and variable

16. Five-year-old Tyler believes "bad things are what you get punished for." Tyler is at Kohlberg's _____ level of morality.
D.punishment oriented

17. Which of the following is NOT a predictor of a successful marriage?
A.both partners have finished college and have good incomes
B.both partners like each other, and consider themselves best friends
C.the couple cohabits to work out conflicts before getting married
D.both partners are religious and consider marriage to be sacred

18. Which of the following suggestions is NOT recommended by therapists in dealing with grief?
A.allow time for the work of grieving
B.plan at least one useful activity per day
C.let others comfort you
D.seek out a therapist immediately

19. During the _____ stage of psychosocial development, individuals decide whether the world is good and satisfying or painful and unrewarding; whereas during the _____ stage, individuals develop a sense of their own competency or insecurity.
A.initiative vs. guilt; autonomy vs. doubt and shame
B.industry vs. inferiority; ego integrity vs. despair
C.ego integrity vs. despair; intimacy vs. isolation
D.trust vs. mistrust; industry vs. inferiority

20. Research on aging in the United States indicates that elderly men generally have more _____ than elderly women, but elderly women have more _____.
A.income; sexual partners
B.sexual partners; family relationships
C.income; friends
D.patience; emotions

21. Research on the midlife crisis suggests that it is _____.
A.typical of most middle-aged males
B.typical of most middle-aged females
C.rare in males and females
D.more likely to occur after middle age

22. The primary purpose of the hospice movement is to _____.
A.reduce the high cost of dying in hospitals
B.help people die with dignity
C.protect hospitals from the social stigma associated with being the only place people go to die
D.protect families from the indignities of caring for a dying family member

23. Which of the following concepts is considered permanent, universal, and nonfunctional?
C.your grade on this test

24. According to your text, the intentional violation of laws by Martin Luther King, Mohandas Gandhi, and Nelson Mandela was based on which level of moral reasoning?
A.the social contract orientation at the postconventional level
B.the universal ethics orientation at the postconventional level
C.the empathic-charismatic orientation at the graduate level
D.the compassionate-empathic orientation at the postgraduate level

25. Research shows that depression, poverty, and divorce are among the consequences suffered by _____.
A.children of alcoholics
B.teenage mothers
C.males who use drugs in high school
D.young people who do not go to college

26. Lionel recently lost his wife and is experiencing guilt, anger, and resentment. Occasionally, he has vivid dreams that she is still alive, and sometimes even sees her waiting for him on the front porch swing when he comes home from work. It is MOST likely that Lionel is in the _____ stage of grieving.
B.disorganization and despair

27. _____ children recover from trauma, display competence under stress, and prosper despite a high-risk status.

28. Which of the following is associated with resilience in children?
A.a high IQ and a charismatic character
B.regulation of attention, emotion, and behavior
C.positive reinforcement in early childhood
D.effective parenting

29. A time of psychological and emotional turmoil that supposedly occurs around the age of 35 for women and 40 for men is called the _____.
A.revenge of the old-timers
B.mid-life crisis
C.return of insecurity
D.mid-life passage

30. Which of the following is TRUE about a child's understanding of death?
A.Children understand that death is permanent by age two.
B.Children understand that death is universal by age three.
C.Children understand that death is nonfunctional by the age of seven.
D.Discussing death with young children can make them overly anxious and less accepting of death in a loved one.

31. Ms. Giovanni's test results suggest that she is dying of ovarian cancer. She tells her family that the lab must have mixed up her results with someone else's. According to Kubler-Ross, Ms. Giovanni is MOST likely to be in the _____ stage of coping with the suggestion that she is dying.

32. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.preconventional level: fear of punishment
B.conventional level: desire for reward or pleasure
C.postconventional: personal standards for right and wrong
D.all of these options are correctly matched

33. Grieving people generally begin with the _____ stage, and end with the _____ stage.
A.numbness; bargaining
B.grief; anger
C.yearning; acceptance
D.numbness; resolution

34. This is NOT a problem related to adolescent pregnancy.
A.reduced educational achievement
B.fewer children over the life span
C.more risks to maternal health
D.more risks to the child's health

35. The _____ theory of aging suggests that successful adjustment is fostered by a full and active commitment to life; whereas the _____ theory of aging suggests that it is better for adjustment for people to follow the natural withdrawal from life roles in order to be prepared for death.
A.activity; disengagement
B.commitment; withdrawal
C.engagement; disengagement
D.life-affirming; death-preparation

36. A thirty-year-old mother of three who is engaged in deep soul-searching regarding who she is and what she wants to do with the rest of her life, and a 12 year-old boy who is absolutely certain that he was born to be a plumber exemplify _____.
A.the flexibility of Erikson's psychosocial stages of development
B.the limitations of Erikson's psychosocial stages of development
C.the benefit of Freud's psychosexual stages of development over Erikson's psychosocial stages
D.the comparability between Freud's and Erikson's stages of development

37. Jules spent his adolescent stage of development just trying to avoid abuse at home. As a result he never had the time nor the inclination to search his soul or identify his basic beliefs, and finds himself adrift in the adult world, still engaging in delinquent behavior and making only superficial contact with others. It appears that outcome to Jules' adolescent crisis was _____.
A.role confusion

38. _____ is the basic, inborn dispositional quality that appears shortly after birth and characterizes an individual's style of approaching people and situations.
B.Trait theory

39. Research on parenting has found that _____.
A.parental rejection always has an adverse impact on a child
B.strong parental control is interpreted as hostile and rejecting by children across cultures
C.the most important parenting factor that impacts child development is the amount of limit-setting parents provide
D.all of these options are true research findings

40. According to Erikson, the need to develop a sense of identity is the principal task of _____.
A.the phallic stage of psychosexual development
C.middle adulthood
D.the generativity versus stagnation stage of development

41. Which of the following statements about grief is INACCURATE ?
A.Grief is characterized by feelings of desolation and loneliness, and painful memories.
B.Grief is associated with loss, disaster, or misfortune.
C.People who display no emotion will take longer to recover than people who exhibit intense initial grief.
D.The pain associated with grief may motivate a search for a missing loved one.

42. Permissive- _____ parents often raise children who are indifferent to the needs of others because the parents failed to provide appropriate controls or limits on the children's behavior.

43. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the teen pregnancy rate?
A.The U.S. has one of the lowest rates of teen pregnancy among the major industrial nations.
B.The total teen pregnancy rate rose 30% between 1985 and the mid 1990s.
C.Nonmarital teen births rose from 15% in 1960 to 75% in the mid 1990s.
D.all of these options are false

44. The MOST common reason for dropping out of high school is _____.
A.drug abuse
B.family violence
C.financial problems
D.teen pregnancy

45. Efforts to identify and prevent family violence are called _____ programs.

46. After retirement, Effie continued her gardening, volunteered for an agency that mentors young businesswomen, and traveled to new locations every summer; Helga, on the other hand took up residence in her rocking chair, knitting and watching television, while screening calls from busy-body neighbors and family who wanted to distract her from enjoying her well-earned leisurely pursuits. Effie exemplifies the _____ theory of aging, whereas Helga exemplifies the _____ theory.
A.extrovert; introvert
B.engagement; meditative
C.activity; disengagement
D.healthy; unhealthy

47. In Erikson's final stage of psychosocial development, adults may _____.
A.regret lost opportunities
B.become despondent
C.review their accomplishments
D.any of these options

48. Gilligan's major criticism of Kohlberg's stages of moral development is that they _____.
A.did not include the morality of the preverbal child nor the very old
B.were developed from samples that included only male subjects
C.are too difficult for the average person to understand
D.predict behavior for women, but not for men

49. Which of the following is FALSE regarding Kohlberg's stages of moral development?
A.They may be culturally biased.
B.They tend to favor political liberals over conservatives.
C.They tend to be biased, favoring males over females.
D.They predict moral behavior more often than not.

50. Someone who burns his country's flag just because constitutional law says he can is reasoning at the _____ stage of moral development; whereas someone who burns his country's flag because he believes that his country has lost its legitimacy is reasoning at the _____ stage.
A.punishment and obedience; individual principle
B.individual principle; individual principle
C.law and order; social contract
D.individual principle; instrumental-exchange

51. Rebecca finds it difficult to establish close bonds with others, and as a result avoids anything other than superficial relationships. According to Erikson, it is likely that Rebecca had difficulty with the prior developmental challenge(s) of _____.
A.identity vs. role confusion
B.ego integrity vs. despair
C.trust vs. autonomy
D.initiative vs. industry

52. An officer in the military is LEAST likely to obey orders to rape and pillage in a vanquished town if he has achieved the _____ orientation of moral reasoning.
A.good person
B.law and order
C.justice and caring
D.universal ethics

53. Mr. and Mrs. Miaki think that children should be seen and not heard, and they stress obedience and mature behavior in their children. Baumrind would classify the Miakis as _____ parents.

54. Which of the following families is at risk for family violence?
A.The Smiths, who live in an upscale neighborhood
B.The Jones', who live in near poverty
C.The Johnsons, who attend church and pray together
D.not enough information has been provided for a risk-analysis

55. A child who can sustain competence under stress, recover from trauma, or achieve a good developmental outcome despite a high-risk status is demonstrating _____.
A.rapid recovery
B. resilience
C. flexibility

56. Once an individual has accepted the rules of society, and internalized them, that person has advanced to the _____ level of moral development.

57. According to Erickson, generativity in middle adulthood involves _____.
A.creativity in one's work and leisure activities
B.taking time out to appreciate the beauties of nature
C.concern with one's own well-being and the well-being of family members
D.expanding one's concern beyond the immediate family group

58. Morrell recently lost his father and is listless, apathetic, and submissive. Life has no meaning any more. It is MOST likely that Morrell is in the _____ stage of grieving.
C.disorganization and despair
D.none of these options

59. Calvin would like to wear baggy, torn jeans and a nose ring, but he is concerned that others will disapprove. Calvin is at Kohlberg's _____ level of morality.
B.approval seeking

60. According to Erikson's theory, the dominant crisis of adolescence concerns _____.
A.resolving sexual conflicts
B.establishing an identity
C.deciding on life goals
D.making a place for oneself in adult society

61. Joseph is retiring at age 65. Which factor is MOST likely to enhance his satisfaction with life after retirement?
A.Joseph chose to retire.
B.Joseph will have more time to pursue his favorite activity: being a couch potato
C.Joseph was divorced two years ago
D.all of these options

62. Emily is looking back at the last few decades of her life and feeling deep regret at the opportunities she passed up, knowing she does not have enough time left to start over. Emily is likely to be in Erikson's _____ stage of development.
A.ego integrity vs. despair
B.intimacy vs. isolation
C.industry vs. remorse
D.generativity vs. stagnation

63. An infant's inborn disposition is known as _____.

64. In the United States, _____ is one of the greater stresses experienced by the elderly.
A.physical decline
B.psychological decline
C.fear of death

65. Research on the period of time when adult children have left home suggests that _____.
A.parents throw an "I'm free at last party"
B.marital satisfaction increases, and parent-child relationships continue to flourish
C.most parents experience a painful loss and depression when the last child leaves
D.adult children rarely stay in touch with their parents once they leave home

66. Resolution of the critical conflict of young adulthood will, according to Erikson, lead to a sense of _____.

67. Which of the following groups has the lowest life expectancy AFTER age 75?
A.Anglo Americans

68. Every time her mother tells her to do something, Sue-Lee says, "No!" even if she really wants to do it. It is MOST likely that Sue-Lee's assertion of independence is characteristic of the _____ stage of development.

69. Research on the period of middle age suggests all of the following EXCEPT _____.
A.middle age is a time for reexamining values and goals
B.a severe reaction or crisis during middle age is quite rare
C.drastic changes in personality and behavior is characteristic of this stage of development
D.all of these options are true research findings

70. Dr. Kevorkian is best known for aiding people with terminal, degenerative conditions to commit suicide. His motivation might be explained by Gilligan's _____ perspective because he believed their right to choose death was greater than the government's right to forbid suicide. A family's motivation for supporting what he did might be explained by Gilligan's _____ perspective because they felt obligated to help someone they cared about.
A.universal ethic; social contract
B.instrumental-exchange; relationship
C.civil rights; family obligation
D.justice; caring

71. The idea that emotional turmoil and rebellion are characteristic of all adolescents has been labeled _____.
A.adolescent storm and stress
B.teen rebellion
C.gang warfare
D.all of these options

72. In Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, the establishment of a personal identity is dependent upon resolving which of the following prior challenges?
A.industry vs. initiative
B.ego integrity vs. despair
C.autonomy vs. doubt and shame
D.intimacy vs. isolation

73. To study moral development, Kohlberg _____.
A.observed the moral behavior in natural settings
B.collected longitudinal data by observing the changes in moral reasoning of subjects as they aged
C.used archival data from newspapers regarding moral behavior
D.collected cross-sectional data by asking subjects of various ages to respond to stories that depicted moral dilemmas

74. People who participated in the Boston Tea-Party were demonstrating the _____ stage of moral development at the _____ level.
A.instrumental-exchange and social contract; conventional
B.social contract and individual principle; postconventional
C.instrumental-exchange and social contract; postconventional
D.social contract and individual principle; conventional

75. The positive or negative resolution of eight developmental challenges is characteristic of _____ theory.
A.Freud's psychosexual
B.Freud's psychoanalytic
C.Maslow's hierarchical
D.Erikson's psychosocial

76. Which of the following is correct sequence for Kubler-Ross's stage theory of dying?
A.denial ® anger ® bargaining ® depression ® acceptance
B.anger ® denial ® depression ® bargaining ® acceptance
C.denial ® bargaining ® anger ® depression ® acceptance
D.bargaining ® denial ® depression ® anger ® acceptance

77. Factors that can increase the risk status of children include all of the following EXCEPT _____.
A.chronic poverty
B.parental divorce
C.mental illness in one or both parents
D.being an only child OR having more than three siblings

78. According to Erikson, humans progress through eight stages of psychosocial development. Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence for the "successful" completion of the second four stages?
A.identity ® intimacy ® generativity ® ego integrity
B.ego integrity ® trust ® intimacy ® generativity
C.initiative ® intimacy ® generativity ® ego integrity
D.identity ® autonomy ® intimacy ® generativity

79. Kohlberg's theory of moral development has been criticized for its _____.
A.cultural bias toward Western ideas of morality
B.political bias in favor of conservatives
C.sexual bias in favor of women
D.ethnic bias against Anglo-Saxons

80. Which of the following is INCORRECT regarding fathering?
A.There are very few differences in the attachments children develop with either parent.
B.Fathers are less involved than mothers in direct childcare during infancy.
C.Fathers are just as involved as mothers in direct childcare after infancy.
D.Fathers are just as responsive, nurturing, and competent as mothers when they are engaged in childcare.

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