1. Which of the following is NOT true regarding infant sensory and perceptual development?
A.Vision is 20/200 at birth, and 20/20 by the end of the first year.
B.Infants show a preference for books that were read to them while they were in the womb.
C.An infant can recognize its own mother's breastmilk by smell.
D.An infant can recognize its own mother's breastmilk by taste.

2. A major problem found in _____ research is called _____, in which participants of the same age might be affected by factors unique to their generation.
A.longitudinal; cross-sectional effects
B.cross-sectional; cohort effects
C.longitudinal; cohort effects
D.cross-sectional; longitudinal effects

3. The case of Genie, reported in your textbook, is used by _____.
A.nurturists because she was punished for making sounds and therefore did not learn to speak until she was rescued and rewarded for language use
B.nativists because she did not show the "explosive" pattern of language development despite extensive teaching
C.interactionists because early isolation may have caused an atrophy of language-related brain tissue, but subsequent nurturing did lead to her acquisition of language skills
D.all of these options

4. The four stages of Piaget's cognitive development model are _____.
A.assimilation, accommodation, adaptation, and association
B.sensory, motor, operational, and abstract
C.sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
D.sensorimotor, precognitive, operational, and abstract operational

5. Noam Chomsky believes we possess an inborn ability to learn language known as a _____.
A.telegraphic understanding device (TUD)
B.language acquisition device (LAD)
C.language and grammar translator (LGT)
D.overgeneralized neural net (ONN)

6. Which of the following physical changes is NOT associated with late adulthood?
A.cardiac output decreases and blood pressure increases
B.smell sensitivity increases
C.gradual degeneration of neurons (in numbers, functioning, and support)
D.visual and hearing acuity declines

7. If a psychologist was interested in studying the stability of IQ scores over time, she should use the _____ method of data collection.
C.case history

8. Each person (except a monozygotic twin) has a unique set of _____, the segments of DNA that are found on the _____.
A.genes; chromosomes
B.chromosomes; genes
C.dizygotic DNA molecules; monozygotic DNA molecules
D.monozygotic DNA molecules; dizygotic DNA molecules

9. In response to the question, "Where would you go if you could fly?," three-year-old Solana is most likely to reply _____, while ten-year-old Pepita is most likely to reply _____.
A."Germany;" "Paris"
B."the moon;" "the stars"
C."up in the air;" "to the moon and stars and around the world"
D."home;" "home"

10. Developmental psychologists are NOT interested in _____.
A.fetal well-being
B.age-related differences
C.age-related similarities
D.life after death

11. All of the following statements characterize the information processing model of cognitive development EXCEPT _____.
A.attention is analogous to data entry into a computer system
B.memory is analogous to computer storage
C.qualitative changes occur in stages over the life span
D.quantitative changes occur gradually over the life span

12. Floyd and Fiona are fraternal twins. With regard to their ability to reproduce, you can predict that _____.
A.Floyd will be capable of reproduction at about the same time as Fiona
B.Fiona will be capable of reproduction about two years before Floyd
C.there will be about one year between the time Floyd and Fiona become capable of reproduction
D.Floyd will be capable of reproduction about two years before Fiona

13. Which of the following senses is MOST poorly developed at birth?
B.the sixth sense

14. Menarche is the _____.
A.adolescent growth spurt
B.end of a woman's reproductive capacity
C.end of a man's reproductive capacity
D.onset of the menstrual cycle

15. Today, most psychologists take _____ approach to human development.
A.a nativist
B.an empiricist
C.a dualist
D.an interactionist

16. According to Ainsworth's research using the strange situation procedure, _____ infants used the mother as a safe base from which to explore the environment.
A.maternally based
B.securely attached

17. Infants enter the true linguistic stage at about _____ of age with the understanding that _____.
A.18 months; dada means daddy
B.12 months; mama means mommy
C.12 months; sounds are related to meaning
D.18 months; consonants and vowels produce words

18. Children make errors like "mouses" and "goed" versus "mice" and "went" because they _____ the rules of grammar.
B.haven't learned

19. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.Aristotle: nurture
B.Plato: nature
C.maturation: nature
D.tabula rasa: nature

20. Differences in age groups that reflect factors unique to a specific age group are called _____ effects.
B.social environmental

21. Two of the most important factors for the relatively high number of birth defects and infant deaths in the United States are _____.
A.smoking and alcohol abuse
B.malnutrition and lack of prenatal and early pediatric care
C.alcohol abuse and malnutrition
D.lack of prenatal and early pediatric care

22. With regard to the "wild child" syndrome, the Hollywood movie about Nell _____.
A.accurately depicted the causes of this syndrome
B.was a factual account of the case of "Genie," a real-life "wild child"
C.exaggerated the benefits and outcome of treatment for children with this syndrome
D.improved the public's understanding about this syndrome

23. Myelination of axons is responsible for _____.
A.speeding neural transmission
B.the ability to recognize signs of a full bladder
C.the ability to screen out distracting stimuli
D.all of these options

24. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.agoraphobic infant: agoraphobic adult
B.securely attached infant: close, intimate adult relationships
C.avoidant infant: blocked intimacy and emotional distance in adult relationships
D.anxious/ambivalent infant: obsessive, possessive, and emotionally demanding adult relationships

25. To the delight of her parents, Mosee has just begun to produce vowel sounds known as _____, while Farina is delighting her parents by emitting all the sounds of human speech, which is called _____.
A.vocalizing; cooing
B.cooing; babbling
C.babbling; cooing
D.vocalizing; babbling

26. When a typist changes from a conventional typewriter to a word processor, his typing schema will have to _____ to incorporate the new techniques needed for the new equipment.

27. According to Piaget, an infant acquires _____ when he or she understands that people and things continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched.
D.object permanence

28. Mikail eats high fat foods, does not exercise, and smokes cigarettes. These behaviors contribute to Mikail's _____ aging process.

29. Age at crawling, walking, and toilet training is primarily dependent on the _____.
A.educational level of the parents
B.specific training techniques of the child's caretakers
C.maturational readiness of the child
D.genetic influences inherited from both the mother and father

30. Conception occurs when a(n) _____.
A.fertilized egg implants in the uterine lining
B.ovum undergoes its first cell division
C.ejaculation occurs
D.sperm cell unites with an ovum

31. Sarah is showing serious deficits in cognitive skills and impairment in motor skills and coordination. Jeremy was born with serious heart, face, and finger deformities and is showing signs of delayed motor development and lowered intelligence. It is likely that Sarah has _____, and Jeremy has _____.
A.fetal alcohol syndrome; symptoms of prenatal exposure to alcohol
B.symptoms of prenatal nicotine exposure; genetic abnormalities
C.symptoms of prenatal exposure to alcohol; fetal alcohol syndrome
D.genetic abnormalities; fetal alcohol syndrome

32. Dennis was born with wide-set eyes, a thin upper lip, limb abnormalities, motor and growth retardation, and low intelligence. These characteristics are most often related to _____.
A.paternal alcoholism
B.fetal alcohol syndrome
C.Down's syndrome
D.retardive dyskinesia

33. Which of the following behaviors is NOT influenced by culture?
A.15-year-old Chou is cooperative and respectful toward his grandparents.
B.5-year-old Kim believes that her father is just showing his love and concern when he beats her with a stick for not completing her chores.
C.16-year-old Brant enjoys lively debates with his history teacher.
D.17-month-old Zahra tried to climb the stairs and fell off the first step.

34. A child who calls any man with a moustache "daddy" is demonstrating the principle of _____ by misusing the word "daddy" to include men who don't belong in that category.

35. _____ is the psychological development that occurs during the period between childhood and adulthood, whereas _____ is the physiological reproductive development that occurs during the same period.
A.Puberty; adolescence
B.Puberty; fertility
C.Adolescence; fertility
D.Adolescence; puberty

36. Which of the following is NOT a limitation of longitudinal studies ?
A.time and money
C.self-selected sample bias
D.cohort effects

37. Mitzy said, "The car wants to go to the park." Mitzy's attribution of consciousness to the car is called _____.
B.animated egocentrism
C.primitive logic

38. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the quantitative changes in cognition over the life span?
A.Attention increases from early childhood to late adolescence, remains stable during young and middle adulthood, then declines again in later adulthood.
B.Two-year-olds can repeat back about two digits, ten-year-olds can repeat back about six digits, and sixty-year-olds can repeat back about three digits.
C.Speed of processing is slower in young children and in older adults because of a lack or loss of myelination.
D.Older returning students in college usually do slightly worse than their younger counterparts.

39. Piaget used the term egocentrism to describe the fact that _____.
A.all children are naturally selfish during the first few years of life
B.children view the world from one perspective (their own)
C.the child's limited logic impedes his or her understanding of the need to share
D.children are unable to conserve

40. Which of the following is INCORRECT regarding the male climacteric ?
A.Men experience a decline in testosterone and sperm production as they age.
B.Men may experience a decline in sexual responsiveness as they age.
C.Men may experience unexpected weight gain and loss of muscle strength at this time.
D.all of these options are correct

41. Memory deficits in the elderly are primarily problems of _____.
A.interneuron decay
B.encoding and retrieval
C.primary aging
D.secondary aging

42. The Hayflick limit refers to the _____.
A.maximum human life span
B.amount of damage the human heart can sustain
C.genetically controlled maximum number of cell divisions
D.maximum number of times a given immune cell can perform its function

43. Rapid cell division from conception to two weeks is known as the _____ period.

44. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.nurturist perspective: language acquisition device (LAD) requires exposure to adult language to be activated
B.nurturist perspective: language acquisition is based on operant and observational learning
C.nativist perspective: language acquisition is due to maturation
D.nativist perspective: children are born "prewired" for language

45. By age five, most children _____.
A.have mastered several rules of grammar
B.can use about 1,000 words properly
C.are capable of communicating adequately in their native language
D.all of these options

46. The first movements a newborn exhibits are _____.
B.innate and voluntary
C.involuntary reflexes elicited by external stimuli
D.all of these options

47. What conclusions can be drawn from infant-attachment and adult relationship studies?
A.Poor attachment in infancy causes poor adult relationships.
B.Early attachment predicts adult relationship styles.
C.Infant attachment determines adult relationship patterns.
D.none of these options

48. Early maturation in boys is positively correlated with all of the following EXCEPT _____.
A.school achievement
B.positive body image
C.problem behaviors
D.social disadvantages

49. Extreme forms of self-consciousness and concerns for physical appearance are common in adolescents, who tend to exhibit the early formal operational characteristic called _____.
A.the personal fable
B.adolescent egocentrism
C.an imaginary audience
D.the egocentric fable

50. The results of a cross-sectional marketing study to determine how age changes people's beliefs about family purchases and financial planning were criticized on the grounds that the data was influenced by cohort effects. This means that _____.
A.some of the subjects belonged to ethnic minorities
B.the subjects were self-selected by their friends and neighbors
C.the older groups of subjects lived during the depression
D.only 63% of the questionnaires were returned

51. Which of the following is TRUE about conception?
A.It is the fertilization of the female egg by the male sperm.
B.The new cell is called a blastocyst.
C.The blastocyst is no larger than the period at the end of this sentence.
D.all of these options are true

52. Evidence supporting the role of maturation in motor development is provided by _____.
A.the universal progression from crawling to walking
B.the ability of Hopi Indian children to walk at one year even though they've been carried in a cradleboard until then
C.the inability of Hopi Indian children to walk until after they have crawled
D.none of these options

53. When an infant realizes that sucking on a finger is nearly as enjoyable as sucking on a nipple, _____ has occurred; however, when the same infant realizes that sucking on a spoon does not work as efficiently as sucking on a nipple, _____ has occurred.
A.an association; an adaptation
B.assimilation; accommodation
C.an adaptation; an association
D.accommodation; assimilation

54. The first movements a newborn exhibits are _____.
A.bowel movements
B.mewlings and puking
C.root, root, rooting for the "breast team"

55. The _____ approach to cognitive development draws an analogy between the mind and the computer.
A.human-machine system
B.information processing

56. Harlow's research with infant monkeys and artificial surrogate mothers indicates that _____.
A.the most important factor in infant development is a loving environment
B.attachment is not essential to normal development
C.there is no significant difference in the choice of wire or terrycloth mothers
D.the most important variable in attachment may be contact comfort

57. Menopause is _____.
A.another name for the onset of the menstrual cycle
B.a time of wild mood swings for all women due to fluctuations in hormones
C.the cessation of the menstrual cycle
D.the result of increases in estrogen levels

58. The period of life when an individual first becomes capable of reproduction is known as _____.
A.the growth spurt
D.the latency period

59. Which of the following is INCORRECT regarding menopause ?
A.It is the cessation of menstruation.
B.It occurs between the ages of 45 and 55.
C.It is the result of decreases in progesterone.
D.It is not associated with mood swings, depression, and loss of sex drive.

60. Cognitive development tends to occur _____, whereas physical development and motor skills tend to occur _____.
A.in discrete stages; in a more continuous manner
B.on a continuous basis; in "leaps and bounds"
C.without pain; with pain
D.none of these options: all development tends to occur in a continuous manner

61. Greenfield suggests that the most important characteristic to know about a child in order to predict future behavior is _____.
A.socioeconomic status
B.peer group norms
C.sociocultural context
D.parental role models

62. According to Harlow and Zimmerman's research with cloth and wire surrogate mothers, _____ is the most important variable for attachment.
A.availability of food
B.contact comfort
C.caregiver and infant bonding

63. The personal fable of adolescence is a result of _____ differentiation from others, while the imaginary audience of adolescence is a result of _____ differentiation from others.
A.too much; too little
B.too little; too much
C.overt; covert
D.covert; overt

64. During Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development, adolescents first become capable of _____.
B.dealing effectively with transformations
C.using language and other symbols
D.hypothetical thinking

65. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.prelinguistic: three distinguishable cries (hunger, anger, pain)
B.cooing: the production of vowel sounds
C.babbling: the production of consonants and vowels
D.babbling: the production of sounds used only in the child's native language

66. The fact that African infants generally sit, stand, and walk from one to several months earlier than North American infants is evidence of _____.
A.African motor precocity
B.Western motor retardation
C.the role of practice in motor development
D.the role of maturation in motor development

67. At birth, an infant cannot _____.
A.see as well as an adult
B.recognize the taste or odor of its own mother's milk
C.feel pain
D.turn its head without help

68. Assad and Juana believe in stimulating their new baby's senses. They also believe it is important to reinforce her curiosity and attempts to interact with them verbally. It is MOST likely that Assad and Juana believe that _____ is important for child development.
B.sensation training

69. Adolescent egocentrism is characterized by _____.
A.a personal fable and imaginary audience
B.sexual fantasies
C.a belief that they are the center of the universe
D.a belief that they are the best at everything

70. A _____ is the most appropriate research method for studying age-changes across the life span.
A.case study
B.natural observation
C.longitudinal study
D.cross-sectional study

71. Tesia said, "The rain quit falling because I wanted to go out to play." This is an example of _____, which indicates that Tesia is in the _____ of cognitive development.
A.animism; sensorimotor stage
B.subjective permanence; preoperational
C.egocentrism; preoperational stage
D.conservation; concrete operational stage

72. Cognitive structures that consist of a number of organized ideas that grow and differentiate with experience are called _____.
A.data points

73. Which of the following is TRUE regarding a father's contribution to the health of the fetus?
A.Fathers transmit genetically heritable diseases.
B.Sperm damaged by environmental toxins cannot fertilize an egg.
C.The placental barrier will protect a fetus whose mother is exposed to the father's smoking.
D.all of these options are true

74. If a psychologist wanted to compare six-year-old and ten-year-old children on recognition memory performance, the psychologist would use the _____ method of data collection.
B.naturalistic observation

75. _____ refers to a young child's presumption that others see, hear, think, and feel exactly as they do, and the inability to experience anyone else's point of view.
A.Preoperational egocentrism
B.Social egoism
C.Preoperational ethnocentrism
D.Preoperational ego-fantasy

76. Recent research on aging suggests all of the following EXCEPT _____.
A.loss of muscle strength and physical frailty are inevitable and irreversible
B.loss of neurons and brain functioning is modest
C.exercise and good nutrition may profoundly affect the aging process
D.all of these options are true

77. In the area of child development, cultures have specific ideas and beliefs regarding how children should be trained. Such a set of ideas and beliefs is referred to as a(n) _____.
B.cultural bias
D.cohort effect

78. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.embryonic period: development of major body organs
B.conception: development of blastocyst
C.germinal period: rapid cell division
D.fetal period: rapid weight gain and "detailing" of body organs and systems

79. When five-month-old Jessica learns that mommy continues to exist even when she cannot be directly sensed, Jessica has developed _____.
A.sensory permanence
B.perceptual constancy
C.perceptual permanence
D.object permanence

80. Pubic hair, breasts, facial hair and deepening of the voice are called _____.
A.signs of puberty
B.sexual maturation
C.secondary sex characteristics
D.masculine and feminine attributes

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