1. Suzanne is told that if she does not increase her work output significantly in the next week, she will be fired. According to Selye, her immediate reaction to this news is likely to be
A.alarm.
B.collapse.
C.resistance.
D.exhaustion.


2. Rene Descartes' mind-body dualism
A.is inconsistent with modern views of the relationship between the mind and bodily illnesses.
B.is supported in diagnoses such as factitious and somatoform disorders.
C.is reflected in current research on the psychophysical disorders.
D.all of the above.


3. The perspective on hysterical disorders that suggests people use these symptoms to express emotions that they cannot express otherwise is the __________ view.
A.cognitive
B.behavioral
C.humanistic
D.psychodynamic


4. A person who has difficulty expressing unpleasant emotions such as anger or hostility is displaying a ___________ and is at greater risk for heart disease/asthma.
A.sociocultural stressor
B.type A personality
C.type B personality
D.repressive coping style


5. A clinician who combined psychological and physical treatments to prevent or treat medical problems would be practicing
A.psychophysiological arousal.
B.psychoneuroimmunolgy.
C.psychoanalytic medicine.
D.behavioral medicine.


6. Which of the following is likely to be useful in distinguishing hysterical somatoform disorders from true medical problems?
A.the particular body part showing the symptom
B.the failure of a condition to develop as expected
C.the patient's description of the source of the symptoms
D.the usual course of development of the physical symptoms


7. Dysmorphophobia is a somatoform disorder characterized by
A.severe and prolonged pain in one area of the body.
B.significant dysfunctioning in one or more areas of the body.
C.overconcern with minor physical fluctuations in one's bodily state.
D.preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in appearance.


8. Conversion disorders most often appear in
A.childhood.
B.adolescence.
C.middle adulthood.
D.late adulthood.


9. It seems as if every night 7-year-old Emily awakes suddenly, screaming inconsolably. She is clearly frightened, but the cause is a mystery. The next morning she remembers nothing. This is an example of a
A.nightmare.
B.dyssomnia.
C.sleep attack.
D.sleep terror.


10. Sarah brings her young daughter into the emergency room with internal bleeding. The attending physician later concludes that Sarah caused the symptoms in her daughter intentionally, to bring her to a doctor's attention. If this assessment is true, Sarah would be diagnosed as having
A.a factitious disorder.
B.a conversion disorder.
C.Munchausen syndrome.
D.Munchausen syndrome by proxy.


11. The following best describes which disorder? The patient had several surgeries over the years for vague and nonspecific sexual and reproductive problems, visiting many of the best hospitals in the East during the course of treatment.
A.conversion disorder
B.somatization disorder
C.pain disorder associated with psychological factors
D.preoccupation disorder


12. It was convenient when Rowena awoke blind. She had been terrified about testifying and now she did not have to. This is an example of
A.repression.
B.primary gain.
C.reinforcement.
D.secondary gain.


13. Those who are experiencing somatoform disorders are likely to receive psychological treatment that is most like those who are experiencing _____________ disorders.
A.substance abuse
B.mood
C.anxiety
D.organic mental


14. All of the following are considered traditional psychophysical disorders except
A.asthma.
B.insomnia.
C.cancer.
D.migraine headaches.


15. If a chronically ill child was removed from home and placed in foster care, and then became quite healthy, one might suspect that the original parent was experiencing
A.malingering.
B.a psychophysical disorder.
C.a somatoform disorder.
D.a factitious disorder.


16. If Armand can pretend to be sick he can get the day off from work and go hunting. This is an example of
A.malingering.
B.factitious disorder.
C.somatoform disorder.
D.psychophysiological disorder.


17. Freud believed that hysterical symptoms
A.were rooted in the oral stage.
B.enabled people to avoid unpleasant activities.
C.were medical problems that needed medical, not psychological treatment.
D.were more common in men than women.


18. What is the term for the maintenance of a balance between activation and deactivation (calming)?
A.resistance
B.homeostasis
C.neural regulation
D.positive feedback


19. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale
A.assigns a numerical value to stressful life events.
B.includes both positive and negative life events.
C.measures cumulative stress over a period of time.
D.all of the above.


20. Living in a dangerous area, working at an unsatisfying job, and being discriminated against are examples of __________ stressors.
A.cataclysmic
B.background
C.personal
D.family


21. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is assumed to involve activation of the parasympathetic nervous system?
A.alarm
B.collapse
C.resistance
D.exhaustion


22. According to the psychodynamic view, conversion disoder symptoms function to keep unacceptable thoughts and conflicts out of consciousness. This is called
A.sociocultural stress.
B.primary gain.
C.reinforcement.
D.secondary gain.


23. David stops breathing when he is sleeping. It scares his wife to death. David is displaying
A.insomnia.
B.narcolepsy.
C.sleep apnea.
D.hypersomnia.


24. A somatization disorder differs from a conversion disorder in that
A.conversion disorders usually last longer.
B.conversion disorders usually begin later in life than somatization disorders.
C.conversion disorders are more rare than somatization disorders in the United States.
D.conversion disorders are more common in men and somatization disorders are more common in women.


25. People who are coping with severe pain by telling themselves that they can get through it by focusing on the end of the pain, and by remembering that they have gotten through it before, are most likely to have received which of the following therapies?
A.insight therapy
B.cognitive therapy
C.behavioral medicine
D.psychotropic medication


26. Which of the following is a primary characteristic of an individual with Munchausen syndrome by proxy?
A.psychotic
B.independent
C.emotionally dependent
D.limited intelligence and education


27. Based on evidence from case studies, the best advice you could give someone who was experiencing a hysterical disorder about seeking treatment is
A.be very wary of taking antidepressants; they don't work with this disorder.
B.confrontation therapy is the treatment of choice.
C.approaches using insight, suggestion, and reinforcement work best.
D.family therapy has been most heavily researched and seems to show the most promise.


28. Preoccupation somatoform disorders are typically explained by therapists in much the same way as ___________ disorders are.
A.anxiety
B.substance abuse
C.mood
D.schizophrenic


29. Which of the following people is experiencing the most stress as measured by the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?
A.one who has just won the lottery
B.one whose spouse has just died
C.one who has just retired
D.one whose child is seriously ill


30. The following best describes which disorder? The heart patient complained of adhesions from the scar, leg cramps, and joint stiffness, but no medical reason could be found to explain the symptoms.
A.conversion disorder
B.somatization disorder
C.pain disorder associated with psychological factors
D.preoccupation disorder


31. Hypertension is twice as common among African Americans as among white Americans. If one believes this is because African Americans are more likely to live in dangerous areas, work at unsatisfying jobs, and suffer discrimination, one is emphasizing the role of _________ factors in the development of the disorder
A.sociocultural
B.psychological
C.biological
D.interactive


32. According to Selye, in the presence of stress, the body's initial response is in the _________ stage and involves primarily action of the __________.
A.resistance, parasympathetic nervous system
B.exhaustion, sympathetic nervous system
C.alarm, sympathetic nervous system
D.resistance, sympathetic nervous system


33. A person appeared at the emergency room complaining of bloody diarrhea. When examined further, it was found that the person was intentionally creating the diarrhea through use of laxatives and anticoagulant medications. This person is most likely experiencing
A.a psychophysical disorder.
B.malingering.
C.a somatoform disorder.
D.a factitious disorder.


34. If the behavior of the woman in the previous question elicited kindness and sympathy from her husband when she was mute, she would be receiving _____________ gains from her behavior.
A.primary
B.secondary
C.tertiary
D.no


35. According to the disregulation model, the body of one experiencing a psychophysical disorder is
A.unable to interpret information about negative events in the environment appropriately.
B.unable to stimulate organs of the body to respond appropriately to negative environmental events.
C.unable to stop organs of the body from responding to negative environmental events.
D.Any or all of the above could be true.


36. A 35-year-old woman hobbles into the office of a physician complaining of a debilitating illness that has robbed her of the use of her left leg and right arm. The physician finds no physical basis for her symptoms. She appears totally unaware that the cause of her symptoms may be psychological. The diagnosis would be
A.malingering.
B.factitious disorder.
C.conversion disorder.
D.preoccupation disorder.


37. What problem leads to psychophysiological disorders, according to the disregulation model?
A.There is brain dysfunction.
B.The autonomic nervous system is damaged.
C.The negative feedback loops of the body malfunction.
D.The brain does not monitor the internal sensors of the body.


38. The effect of norepinephrine and corticosteroids on a body experiencing stress is
A.to keep the body's immune system functioning at a high level throughout the stress.
B.to keep the body's immune system functioning at a low level throughout the stress.
C.initially to stimulate the immune system, then to inhibit it.
D.initially to inhibit the immune system, then to stimulate it.


39. Conversion disorders are more common in
A.women than men.
B.men than women.
C.the middle aged than the young.
D.the elderly than the middle aged.


40. With respect to the causes of somatoform disorders,
A.hysterical disorders are explained similarly to the way anxiety disorders are explained.
B.currently, hysterical disorders are thought to be due to a "wandering uterus."
C.hysterical symptoms appear to be particularly resistant to hypnosis.
D.none of the above.


41. Of the following, the most serious limitation of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale is that it
A.does not show a significant predictable relationship with physical illness.
B.has not been revised and is thus outdated.
C.does not take into account the stresses of specific populations.
D.was normed only on college students.


42. Just before debuting at Carnegie Hall, the pianist suffered paralysis of the left hand. Which of the following best describes this disorder?
A.conversion disorder
B.somatization disorder
C.pain disorder associated with psychological factors
D.preoccupation disorder


43. A person with conversion blindness may catch a ball thrown to her. This example shows
A.malingering.
B.an unusual reaction.
C.selective symptomatology.
D.a neurological inconsistency.


44. Madeline appeared at the clinic complaining of pain in her knee, shoulder, and abdomen, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, and exhaustion. The patient history revealed that she had been going to clinics for years trying to get treatment for these complaints and a host of other physical symptoms. The diagnostic consensus was that Madeline suffered from
A.factitious disorder.
B.somatization disorder.
C.preoccupation disorder.
D.body dysmorphic disorder.


45. When the negative feedback loops of the body do not function properly, the condition can lead to psychophysiological disorders. This is the __________ model.
A.cognitive
B.biological
C.disregulation
D.psychodynamic


46. A person who awoke in a state of panic, was incoherent, and had a very rapid heart rate was most likely experiencing
A.narcolepsy.
B.sleep apnea.
C.sleep terror disorder.
D.nightmare disorder.


47. A cognitive theorist would be most likely to say which of the following about hysterical disorders?
A.The patient is receiving secondary gains from the symptoms.
B.The patient is able to express any emotion except anxiety.
C.The patient is being rewarded for behaving in this way.
D.The patient is unable to communicate difficult emotions.


48. The generic term for the white blood cells that are manufactured in reaction to foreign invaders in the body is
A.antigens.
B.lymphocytes.
C.killer T-cells.
D.helper T-cells.


49. If a physician believes that a patient is aware of and controlling physical symptoms but has no obvious motive for doing so, then the patient may receive a diagnosis of
A.malingering.
B.factitious disorder.
C.somatoform disorder.
D.psychophysiological disorder.


50. Which of the following is an example of malingering?
A.intentionally faking a tic in order to avoid military service
B.intentionally faking back problems because the person likes being a patient
C.experiencing chest pains in response to intense stress
D.loving to undergo unnecessary medical tests


51. A person who is excessively concerned about genital odors and the shape and look of the genitals is most likely experiencing
A.somatization.
B.body dysmorphic disorder.
C.pain disorder associated with psychological factors.
D.hypochondriasis.


52. About what percentage of American women experience a somatization disorder in a given year?
A.less than 0.2%
B.0.2-2%
C.2-5%
D.5-7%


53. Martin was certain that his chin was too big and was misshapen. He was very anxious in public and tried to work at home whenever possible. His condition could best be diagnosed as
A.somatization disorder.
B.hypochondriacal disorder.
C.body dysmorphic disorder.
D.factitious disorder with psychological symptoms.


54. Foreign invaders of the body that stimulate a response from the immune system are called
A.antigens.
B.lymphocytes.
C.killer T-cells.
D.helper T-cells.


55. A person who has repeated plastic surgeries in order to correct only very minor defects that no one else even notices is probably experiencing
A.somatization.
B.body dysmorphic disorder.
C.pain disorder associated with psychological factors.
D.hypochondriasis.


56. The most stressful life event for a student on the Holmes and Rahe stress scale is
A.unplanned pregnancy.
B.death of a family member.
C.being the victim of a crime.
D.breaking up with a boy friend (or girl friend).


57. Which of the following would be least likely to be found in the background of one experiencing Munchausen syndrome?
A.medical training
B.extensive treatment for a true physical disorder
C.extreme fondness for the medical profession
D.few friends and little family life


58. If one were to correlate scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale and number of physical (health) complaints, one would most likely find
A.a significant positive correlation.
B.a significant negative correlation.
C.no correlation.
D.the most illness for people experiencing very low and very high stress.


59. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is assumed to involve activation of the sympathetic nervous system?
A.alarm
B.collapse
C.resistance
D.exhaustion


60. Frequently, when Carlos is working at his desk on a tough problem, he will suddenly fall asleep. This is difficult to understand, because he gets almost 10 hours of sleep each night. He probably has a condition known as
A.narcolepsy.
B.parasomnia.
C.sleep apnea.
D.hypersomnia.


61. A person whose symptoms fulfill some external need is achieving _______ gain.

Answer:


62. One of the dangers of diagnosing a hysterical disorder is that the mysterious origins of the patient's symptoms may actually be __________.

Answer:


63. The first stage of the general adaptation syndrome is __________.

Answer:


64. The personality type that is most likely to have heart trouble is called the __________.

Answer:


65. Alvin stops breathing when he sleeps. It interferes with his sleep. Sometimes he awakes gasping for air. He has headaches upon rising. He falls asleep in the middle of the afternoon. Alvin's condition is called __________.

Answer:


66. The somatoform disorders that involve altered or lost physical functioning are collectively called _______ disorders.

Answer:


67. Marvin is relaxed and in control. Nothing seems to faze him for long. He is about as laid back as they come. His personality would be described as __________.

Answer:


68. A person whose symptoms keep their internal conflicts from emerging into consciousness achieves _______ gain.

Answer:


69. Nadia never quits. She is always in quest of the "deal." She is aggressive, hard working, and not even a little fun loving. Her personality would be described as __________.

Answer:


70. The pressure-sensitive neurons in the arteries are called __________.

Answer:


71. People who suffer from ________ unrealistically and fearfully interpret relatively minor physical discomforts as signs of serious illness.

Answer:


72. Events that have powerful and lingering negative effects on a whole population, such as a war or natural disaster, are called _______ stressors.

Answer:


73. People with _______ travel from hospital to hospital, gaining admission and receiving treatment.

Answer:


74. Eleanor thinks she has horribly ugly hair. She will not be seen in public without a scarf over her head. She suffers from __________ disorder.

Answer:


75. Beauregard saw his parents killed and the next morning he could not see. This is an example of a(n) _______.

Answer:



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