1. Imagine that you need to go talk with your professor about an assignment you thought was evaluated unfairly. Which one of the stages of this stressful situation would the following statement reflect? Talking to the professor wasn't as bad as I expected. I did OK I think.
A.preparing for a stressor
B.confronting a stressor
C.coping with feelings of being overwhelmed
D.reinforcing self-statements

2. Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?
B.bipolar disorder
C.major depression
D.obsessive-compulsive disorder

3. Someone interested in the effects of social change, poverty, and race on the risk for generalized anxiety disorders probably represents the __________ perspective.

4. If a friend asked you for the best advice (research-supported) for treating a social phobia, you should say
A.benzodiazepines work better than antidepressants
B.exposure therapy combined with group therapy is your best bet
C.there really isn't any treatment that's successful with social phobias
D.a and b

5. According to Freud, children who are prevented from making mud pies, playing war, and exploring their genitals are at risk for developing
A.realistic anxiety
B.neurotic anxiety
C.moral anxiety
D.existential anxiety

6. According to Freud, a generalized anxiety disorder is most likely to result when
A.a person does not dream, and thus has no outlet for anxiety
B.anxiety is strong and defense mechanisms weak
C.a person never has a chance to experience trauma
D.anxiety is strong and defense mechanisms too strong

7. Which of the following is not an appropriate match?
A.Beck and cognitive therapy
B.Meichenbaum and stress inoculation training
C.Ellis and rational-emotive therapy
D.Rogers and existential therapy

8. Sigmund Freud believed that phobias result from the excessive use of the defense mechanisms called
A.projection and introjection
B.repression and introjection
C.projection and displacement
D.repression and displacement

9. Cognitive theorists believe that anxiety is induced by
A.maladaptive assumptions
B.lack of empathy
C.interpersonal loss
D.overactive id impulses

10. An intense and disabling fear of dogs would be categorized as
B.social phobia
C.specific phobia
D.generalized anxiety disorder

11. Imagine that you need to go talk with your professor about an assignment you thought was evaluated unfairly. Which one of the stages of this stressful situation would the following statement reflect? OK, take a slow, deep breath. I know I can do it.
A.preparing for a stressor
B.confronting a stressor
C.coping with feelings of being overwhelmed
D.reinforcing self-statements

12. In vicarious conditioning the client
A.directly confronts the feared object
B.observes the therapist confronting the feared object
C.imagines the therapist confronting the feared object
D.imagines himself or herself confronting the feared object

13. If you were afraid of dogs and your therapist treated you by interacting with dogs while you watched, you would be receiving
A.vicarious conditioning
C.systematic desensitization

14. Your fear of spiders is debilitating because you are an entomologist. To treat this phobia, your therapist puts you in a room with spiders, even asking you to handle them. This technique might be used in
C.covert desensitization
D.systematic desensitization

15. Anxiety disorders differ from everyday experiences of fear and anxiety in
D.all of the above

16. A lasting and groundless fear of a specific object, activity, or situation is called a(n)
A.panic disorder
B.phobic disorder
C.generalized anxiety disorder
D.obsessive-compulsive disorder

17. Which of the following is not consistent with a psychodynamic explanation for the development of generalized anxiety? People with generalized anxiety
A.did not have excessive discipline or disturbed environments as children
B.tend to use repression and denial when asked to discuss their problems
C.had parents who were particularly protective of them as children
D.have difficulty remembering fear-arousing events they have experienced

18. "Don't worry, it can be done." "Approach the problem one step at a time." "Just believe that you can succeed." "A big problem is just a series of little problems." These statements would most probably be used by __________ during therapy for anxiety disorder.
A.Albert Ellis
B.Aaron Beck
C.Joseph Wolpe
D.Donald Meichenbaum

19. The following is an example of which anxiety disorder? A person frequently goes to the emergency room complaining of shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, and feelings of impending death, although nothing medically is wrong.
A.generalized anxiety disorder
C.panic disorder
D.obsessive-compulsive disorder

20. If your therapist gave you homework that required you to challenge your faulty assumptions and replace them with healthier ones, the therapist would be using
A.cognitive- existential therapy
B.client-centered therapy
C.rational-emotive therapy
D.interpersonal-physio therapy

21. The gland that produces a hormone that is involved in the reaction to fearful and stressful situations is the
B.adrenal gland

22. You are suffering from arachnophobia. Your therapist first has you go through relaxation training, then has you construct a fear hierarchy and, finally, has you go through a phase of graded pairings of spiders and relaxation responses. This approach is called
C.implosive therapy
D.systematic desensitization

23. If you were particularly anxious about speaking in public, you would probably be most helped by
A.a benzodiazepine
B.a beta blocker
C.a sedative
D.a buspirone

24. Imagine that you need to go talk with your professor about an assignment you thought was evaluated unfairly. Which one of the stages of this stressful situation would the following statement reflect? Keep focusing on the present. I knew I would get anxious doing this.
A.preparing for a stressor
B.confronting a stressor
C.coping with feelings of being overwhelmed
D.reinforcing self-statements

25. GABA is related to
A.increasing neuronal firing in the brain
B.providing feedback about the frequency of neuronal firing
C.intensifying the strength on neuronal firing
D.inhibiting neuronal firing in the brain

26. Until recently, the evidence that generalized anxiety disorder is related to biological factors came largely from
A.drug studies
B.clinical interviews
C.family pedigree studies
D.neurological studies

27. Teaching clients self-statements that they can use when confronted with anxiety provoking situations is the focus of
A.Albert Ellis
B.Aaron Beck
C.Joseph Wolpe
D.Donald Meichenbaum

28. "Please flex your biceps. Now release your biceps. Now flex your thigh. Now release it." These statements might be made by a therapist using
A.biofeedback training
B.EEG training
C.relaxation therapy
D.self-instruction therapy

29. Every once in a while Ona feels nervous to the point of terror. It seems to come on suddenly and randomly. Her experience is an example of a(an)
A.panic disorder
B.phobic disorder
C.generalized anxiety disorder
D.obsessive-compulsive disorder

30. Which theory states that people develop generalized anxiety disorders because they fail to receive unconditional positive regard as children and evaluate themselves with conditions of worth?
A.Pavlov's conditioning theory
B.Freud's psychoanalytic theory
C.Roger's client-centered theory
D.Ellis's rational-emotive theory

31. For me, crossing a bridge is terrifying. If you hardly notice crossing a bridge, we differ in
A.trait anxiety
B.state anxiety
C.situational anxiety
D.b and c

32. The group of hormones that appears to be most involved in anxiety reaction are the

33. One procedure used to treat phobic disorders involves having the therapist confront the feared object or situation while the fearful client observes. This is called
C.implosive therapy
D.systematic desensitization

34. If I believe that is a dire necessity for me to be loved or approved by everyone and that it is catastrophic if things are not the way I want them, I am displaying
A.existential anxiety
B.irrational assumptions
C.moral anxiety
D.conditions of worth

35. Disadvantages of taking benzodiazepines include all of the following except
A.lack of sleep, increased anxiety, and passivity
B.return of anxiety symptoms when the medication is withdrawn
C.impairment in cognitive and psychomotor functioning
D.physical dependence on the drug

36. Generalized anxiety disorders are more common
A.in urbanized countries than in rural countries
B.in men than in women
C.years after rather than immediately after traumatic events
D.in wealthy people than in poor people

37. Psychodynamic, humanistic, and existential therapies have is common
A.their understanding of how generalized anxiety develops and can be treated
B.their view that traditional research methods are inadequate to measure therapy outcome
C.their reliance on a rather harsh, confrontational therapeutic style
D.their use of multidisciplinary therapists who work exclusively in group settings

38. Evidence in support of the biological understanding of generalized anxiety is supported by the finding that
A.relatives of people with generalized anxiety are more likely to have it than nonrelatives
B.distant relatives of those with generalized anxiety are more likely to have it than close relatives
C.relatives share not only biological characteristics, but also similar environments
D.identical twins have more similar environments than fraternal twins

39. The most common mental disorders in the United States are the
A.mood disorders
B.anxiety disorders
C.personality disorders
D.sexual disorders

40. Steve is afraid of eating in public, expecting to be judged negatively, and to feel humiliated. As a result he always makes up excuses when asked out to eat. His diagnosis would probably be
A.a social phobia
B.a specific phobia
C.generalized anxiety disorder
D.post-traumatic stress disorder

41. The part of the body that releases hormones into the blood stream is the __________ system
A.nervous system
B.exocrine system
C.endocrine system
D.autonomic system

42. Neville is so afraid of airplanes that even a picture of one makes him sweat and tremble. Neville suffers from
A.social phobia
B.panic disorder
C.specific phobia
D.generalized anxiety disorder

43. To try to get rid of his dog phobia Jim learns relaxation techniques and creates a list of anxiety-provoking dog-related situations. He then has to imagine the least anxiety-provoking situation and invoke his relaxation training. Next, he has to use his relaxation training while imagining a more fearful situation. Finally, he actually faces a live dog. This description is an example of
B.guided participation
C.vicarious conditioning
D.systematic desensitization

44. Karla's phobia of small insects is
C.social phobia
D.specific phobia

45. The two most common of the anxiety disorders are
A.phobias and generalized anxiety disorders
B.posttraumatic stress disorders and social phobias
C.panic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders
D.generalized anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorders

46. Which theoretical position explains the origin of anxiety disorders as the ineffective control of one's unacceptable impulses?
A.the behavioral approach
B.the humanistic approach
C.the sociocultural approach
D.the psychodynamic approach

47. Tom's fear of snakes is being treated in part by his learning to relax while he looks at a picture of a little snake. This therapy method is called
C.systematic desensitization
D.cognitive behavior therapy

48. Fear differs from anxiety in that
A.fear is to a specific threat and anxiety is more general
B.anxiety is more likely to lead to aggression than is fear
C.anxiety is to an interpersonal threat and fear is to an inanimate threat
D.all of the above

49. Davon watched his father recoil from the snake in fear. Now he is afraid of snakes. This apparent acquisition of fear of snakes is an example of
B.response discrimination
C.escape response
D.stimulus generalization

50. Apparently, people develop phobias more readily to such objects as spiders and the dark than they do to such objects as computers and radios. This observation supports the __________ explanation of phobias.

51. Posttraumatic stress disorders
A.begin immediately after the stress occurs.
B.last between 1 and 3 weeks.
C.don't begin until years after the traumatic event.
D.none of the above.

52. If one rehashes the day's events, critiquing herself each step of the way, asking herself if she had done the proper thing, she would be experiencing
A.obsessive wishes.
B.obsessive impulses.
C.obsessive images.
D.obsessive doubts.

53. A professor who puts on rubber gloves before grading papers and religiously avoids any contact with the hands of students is exhibiting a(n)
A.cleaning compulsion.
B.checking compulsion.
C.order compulsion.
D.touching compulsion.

54. Panic attacks are usually treated with cognitive therapy and/or
A.drug therapy.
B.habituation training.
C.classical conditioning.
D.response prevention therapy.

55. The cognitive explanation for panic disorders is that people who have them
A.have relatives who are atypically anxious.
B.are prone to allergies and have immune deficiencies.
C.misinterpret bodily sensations.
D.experience more stress than average.

56. Posttraumatic stress disorders
A.occur in adults and not children.
B.are more common in men than in women.
C.are most often triggered by academic trauma.
D.often occur with depression and substance abuse.

57. What proportion of Vietnam veterans suffered posttraumatic stress disorder?

58. Recent studies have found evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorders often respond to
A.neuroleptic drugs.
B.antipsychotic drugs.
C.anticonvulsant drugs.
D.antidepressant drugs.

59. Jethro hates his mother-in-law and can't seem to stop imagining her lying in a pool of blood, in pieces. These thoughts are interfering with his daily life. He is exhibiting
A.a compulsion.
B.obsessive ideas.
C.obsessive doubts.
D.obsessive images.

60. Which of the following was least likely to be recognized and treated?
A.a civil war soldier who experienced nostalgia
B.a World War I soldier who experienced shell shock
C.a World War II soldier who experienced posttraumatic stress
D.a Vietnam veteran who experienced posttraumatic stress

61. One who made sure he had his passport, airplane ticket, and hotel reservation form exactly every 5 minutes for an entire day is exhibiting a(n)
A.cleaning compulsion.
B.checking compulsion.
C.order compulsion.
D.touching compulsion.

62. One distinction that DSM-IV makes between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder is based on
A.how intense the anxiety-linked symptoms are.
B.what the cause of the anxiety-linked symptoms was.
C.how soon after the trauma the anxiety symptoms began.
D.what sort of treatment is contemplated for the anxiety-linked symptoms.

63. Laila washes her hands every 10 minutes. It interferes with her life. She cannot go out or get anything done. Laila's condition would best be described as
A.a phobia.
B.an obsession.
C.a compulsion.
D.generalized anxiety.

64. According to Freud, obsessive-compulsive disorders have their origin in the _______ stage of development.

65. Psychoanalytic theory views obsessive-compulsive behavior as resulting from a struggle between the
A.id and the superego.
B.id and the ego defense mechanisms.
C.superego and ego defense mechanisms.
D.ego ideal and the ego defense mechanisms.

66. If a professor had the notion that there were germs lurking everywhere, on papers students handed in, on books checked out of the library, on the chalk left by the previous teacher, the professor would be experiencing
A.obsessive wishes.
B.obsessive ideas.
C.obsessive images.
D.obsessive doubts.

67. The phobia most often associated with panic disorder is

68. What type of drug is Alprazolam (Xanax)?
D.major tranquilizer

69. The yearly prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the United States is about

70. Which of the following is the best example of "emotional anesthesia"?
A.feeling detached or estranged from others and loss of interest in activities
B.feelings of extreme guilt for surviving the traumatic event
C.reliving the event through day dreams and night dreams
D.excessive talking about the event in inappropriate settings

71. According to the psychodynamic perspective, if one keeps imagining engaging in immoral sexual behavior and repeatedly scrubs her face and hands in response to those thoughts,
A.the scrubbing represents a healthy coping response.
B.the immoral images represent id impulses.
C.the superego is helping the person avoid the id impulses.
D.ego defenses are not present.

72. About what proportion of the normal population become irritated if forced to depart from their normal routine?

73. "Everyone has intrusive and unwanted thoughts. Most people ignore them. But some people blame themselves and expect terrible consequences, so they act in ways they hope will neutralize the thoughts." The type of theorist most likely to agree with the quote would be a
A.psychodynamic theorist.
C.cognitive theorist.

74. Panic disorder appears to be related to abnormal activity of which neurotransmitter?

75. Recent studies showed that
A.antidepressant medication resulted in reduction in activity in the caudate nuclei.
B.exposure and response prevention resulted in reduction in activity in the caudate nuclei.
C.both a and b.
D.neither a nor b.

76. The proportion of panic-attack sufferers who reach full, or nearly full, recovery because of antidepressant drugs is about
D.almost 100%.

77. Antidepressants that are effective in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder serve to
A.increase levels of serotonin in the brain.
B.increase levels of norepinephrine.
C.increase the level of all brain neurotransmitters.
D.none of the above.

78. Jose and Ted both get racing hearts once in a while. When it happens to Ted, he panics and thinks he is going to die. Gradually he has developed these panic attacks if he even thinks that his heart is beating strongly. When Jose's heart starts beating strongly, he looks to his current activity to understand what is producing the sensations (hard work). Ted apparently has a high degree of
C.obsessive imagery,
D.anxiety sensitivity,

79. A person with a panic disorder who is encouraged to go out, and is praised for efforts to do so, is probably receiving
A.exposure therapy.
B.cognitive therapy.
C.psychodynamic therapy.
D.medical therapy.

80. The neurotransmitter implicated in the control of obsessive-compulsive disorder is

81. A neurologist who was working with a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder would be suspicious of damage to what region of the brain?
B.caudate nuclei
C.cerebral cortex
D.temporal lobe

82. According to cognitive theorists, compulsive acts serve to _________ obsessive thoughts.

83. Investigators in the 1960s discovered that panic attacks could be reduced or eliminated by the use of
A.neuroleptic drugs.
B.antipsychotic drugs.
C.antidepressant drugs.
D.anticonvulsant drugs.

84. Dorian was only 10 miles away when Mt. St. Helens exploded with one of the largest blasts in history. There was ash and lava everywhere, and he was sure the was going to die. He was terrified to the core of his being. When rescue teams found him a week later, he was cold, hungry, and scared. More than a year later he still has nightmares and wakes up in a cold sweat. This description best fits
A.a phobia.
B.an acute stress disorder.
C.a generalized anxiety disorder.
D.a posttraumatic stress disorder.

85. Recent studies on the effectiveness of therapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder have found that exposure and response prevention reduces activity in the
B.orbital region.
C.cerebral cortex.
D.caudate nucleus.

86. One of the drawbacks of exposure and response prevention as a therapy is that it:
A.has a more than 50% relapse rate.
B.is ineffective with clients with obsessions but no compulsions.
C.is ineffective with clients who have both obsessions and compulsions.
D.does not result in more improvement in obsessive-compulsive clients than do other cognitive-behavioral therapies.

87. Which of the following does not characterize stress disorders?
A.recurring memories, dreams, or nightmares about the event
B.a compulsive need to engage in activities that remind one of the event
C.reduced responsiveness to the world around one
D.signs of increased arousal, such as poor sleep and exaggerated startle reactions

88. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
A.typically lasts for only a short period of time.
B.is more common in men than in women.
C.usually begins in older adulthood.
D.is associated with depression and eating disorders.

89. Current research suggests that those who experience the greatest degree of stress disorder
A.have abnormal levels of norepinephrine and cortisol.
B.are less anxious than the average person before the trauma.
C.were likely to be wealthy as children.
D.were not directly exposed to the trauma, but experienced it second-hand.

90. People who experience a positive event, get excited, breath harder, and have an increase in their heart rate, then interpret the symptoms as a heart attack, are experiencing what cognitive theorists call
A.biological challenge.
B.behavioral inhibition.
C.anxiety sensitivity.
D.exposure relapse.

91. Imagine you are a therapist who takes the cognitive point of view. What would be the point of using a biological challenge test in the treatment of panic attack?
A.To test for anxiety sensitivity to choose a drug to use.
B.To extinguish the physiological response that causes the panic attack.
C.To properly label the physiological responses that trigger the panic attack.
D.There is no point in a cognitive therapist eliciting the physiological responses associated with panic attacks.

92. Rosa's heart was racing (from the 4 cups of coffee she had just finished), but she thought she might be having a heart attack. Her fear seemed to be increasing without end. This might be the beginning of a
A.panic attack.
B.manic episode.
C.specific phobia.
D.generalized anxiety attack.

93. A combat veteran receiving the best treatment for a stress disorder would be likely to experience all of the following except
A.antipsychotic medication.
B.family therapy.
C.rap groups.
D.exposure therapy.

94. How are obsessions and compulsions related?
A.Compulsions are a way to prevent obsessions from occurring.
B.Obsessions generally lead to violent or immoral compulsions.
C.Compulsions help people control their obsessions.
D.Obsessions are not related to compulsions.

95. Which of the following is most true concerning the use of drugs to deal with posttraumatic stress disorder in combat veterans?
A.Antianxiety drugs are used.
B.Antidepressants are used.
C.Both antianxiety drugs and antidepressants are used.
D.Drugs are not usually employed against posttraumatic stress disorder in combat veterans.

96. You notice someone who is sweating, experiencing shortness of breath, choking, feeling dizzy, and is afraid of dying. If it is not a heart attack but in fact an anxiety disorder, it is probably a
A.panic attack.
C.obsessive-compulsive response.
D.posttraumatic disorder.

97. Studies of the effectiveness of exposure and prevention therapy have typically focused on __________ compulsions.
D.ritual counting

98. Educating survivors about symptoms they might develop in the aftermath of a huge disaster is relevant to
A.providing referrals.
B.teaching self-helping skills.
C.diffusing anxiety, anger, and frustration.
D.normalizing people's responses to the disaster.

99. A pattern of anxiety, insomnia, depression, anorexia, and flashbacks that persists for a month or so after a horrible event is called
B.acute stress disorder.
C.generalized anxiety disorder.
D.posttraumatic stress disorder.

100. Recently, in addition to antidepressants, Alprazolam (Xanax) has been found to be successful in treating
B.panic disorders.
C.generalized anxiety disorders.
D.obsessive-compulsive disorders.

101. Performance anxiety may be a form of __________.


102. Eliminating the automatic tendency to assume you are going to fail in a challenging task is the focus of __________ therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.


103. According to Freud, actual physical danger leads to __________ anxiety.


104. One of the most direct indicators of societal stress is __________.


105. Recurrent and unwanted thoughts or the need to perform repetitive and ritualistic actions is characteristic of __________.


106. A uncontrollable and irrational fear of a chair is a __________.


107. A bio-behavioral technique that allows clients to monitor and control their own physiological functions is called __________.


108. It is possible that many common phobic reactions can be explained by human beings having a predisposition to develop certain fears. This idea is referred to as __________.


109. Benzodiazepines appear to reduce anxiety by acting on synapses that are mediated by the neurotransmitter __________.


110. The first non-barbiturate tranquillizer synthesized was __________.


111. Janet rarely has a calm moment. If she leaves the house, she must go to each window at least three times to be sure it is locked. Each appliance receives four passes, and doors are examined at least 10 times. Every aspect of her life, at home and away, is affected by her behavior. Janet suffers from a __________.


112. Since the 1960s, the drugs most likely to be used against panic disorder have been the __________.


113. Repetitive thoughts, ideas, impulses, or mental images that seem to invade a person's consciousness, are __________.


114. Suddenly and without warning, and without apparent cause, Melissa acted as if there were a cataclysmic emergency and she became paralyzed with fear. She probably had a(n) __________.


115. Reliving an event that happened months ago, avoidance of things associated with that event, and a generally reduced responsiveness, are symptoms of __________.


116. The aspect of the response to or recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder or acute stress disorder that involves friends and family is __________.


117. Reactions to trauma that happen almost immediately and gradually go away in a month or so are likely to be diagnosed as __________.


118. Cognitive therapists train clients to label the sensation of the blood pounding in their veins as physical exertion. This is part of his therapy for treating __________.


119. An anxiety reaction that accelerates into a smothering, horrifying ordeal in which one loses control, is practically unaware of what one is doing, and feels a sense of approaching doom, is called a __________.


120. If metabolic activity is any indication, the part of the brain involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder is the __________ and the __________.


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