1. A patient looks at a series of black-and-white pictures, making up a dramatic story about each. The patient is taking
A.the Rorschach Test
B.the Thematic Apperception Test
C.the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
D.an affective inventory


2. An interviewer who asks a client questions like "Where are you now?" "Why do you think you're here?" or even "Who are you?" is probably conducting a(n)
A.mental status exam
B.unstructured interview
C.SORC
D.psychodynamic inventory


3. The assumption behind the use of projective tests as assessment tools is that
A.they are relatively easy to score
B.the responses come from the client's unconscious
C.they stimulate abnormal behaviors that the clinician can observe
D.patient responses to specific stimuli will uncover specific disorders


4. The clinical interviewer most interested in learning the "SORC" for a client would have what orientation?
A.cognitive
B.psychodynamic
C.humanistic
D.behavioral


5. A patient complains of a phobia. Two lines of questioning by the clinician concern the specific object of the phobia and what the person does when he or she confronts that object. This clinician's orientation is probably
A.biological
B.behavioral
C.humanistic
D.psychoanalytic


6. Which of the following is designed to disclose a patients beliefs and assumptions?
A.the MMPI-2
B.the Rorschach
C.an affective inventory
D.a cognitive inventory


7. Statements were presented to both mental patients and non-patients. They were asked to indicate whether each statement was applicable to themselves. The questions that differentiated between the two groups composed the final test. What is the term for this technique of test construction?
A.standardizing
B.criterion keying
C.predictive validating
D.reliability determination


8. The test with the highest validity at identifying psychological disturbances is the
A.TAT
B.MMPI
C.Rorschach
D.Draw-a-Person Test


9. Strengths of intelligence tests include their
A.lack of racial or cultural bias
B.accuracy even when test takers have high anxiety
C.a and b
D.neither a nor b


10. Deciding that a client's psychological problems in fact represent a particular disorder is called
A.psychotherapy.
B.assessment.
C.diagnosis.
D.triage.


11. DSM-IV is the classification system for abnormal behaviors which is
A.used by the World Health Organization
B.most widely used in the U.S.
C.a and b
D.neither a nor b


12. A client is hooked up to an apparatus which measures galvanic skin response and blood pressure, after which the client verbally answers a series of questions. The type of clinical test being used is
A.projective
B.psychophysiological
C.neuropsychological
D.affective response inventory


13. A high school bully constantly ignores others' rights, and appears not even to realize that others do have rights. A likely DSM-IV partial diagnosis for this bully would be
A.a GAF of 60 on Axis II
B.a GAF of 60 on Axis III
C.antisocial personality disorder on Axis II
D.antisocial personality disorder on Axis III


14. Clinical interviews are the preferred assessment technique of many practitioners. One particular strength of the interview process is
A.validity
B.the reliability of the technique
C.the chance to get a general sense of the client
D.that interviewers do not distort client information


15. The test which reports one's results on clinical scales like "Hypochodriasis" (HS) and "Psychopathic deviate" (PD) is the
A.Sentence-Completion Test
B.Thematic Apperception Test
C.Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test
D.Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory


16. The test with built-in items designed to detect things like lying and carelessness is the
A.MMPI
B.TAT
C.WAIS
D.WISC


17. One way a clinician might try to reduce observer drift would be to
A.increase the number of different behaviors being monitored
B.try to focus on different aspects of one behavior being monitored
C.decrease the lengths of the observation periods
D.try not to learn too much about a client before making observations


18. A client reports having infrequent, but extremely disturbing, tactile hallucinations. The most useful of the following ways to gather information about this person would involve
A.self-monitoring
B.naturalistic observations
C.structured observations
D.a neuropsychological battery


19. One of the drawbacks of clinical observation is that behaviors observed in one situation may not reflect behaviors that occur in a different situation. This reflects a problem with
A.reactivity
B.observer bias
C.observer drift
D.external validity


20. A mental health practitioner attempts to learn about the behavior and emotional state of each client. This approach to abnormal psychology is called
A.behavioral
B.nomothetic
C.idiographic
D.psychodynamic


21. If a new test for assessing anorectic tendencies produces scores comparable to those from other tests for assessing anorectic tendencies, then the new test has high
A.predictive validity
B.standardization criteria
C.concurrent validity
D.performance criteria


22. Altogether, a DSM-IV evaluation might involve diagnoses on a maximum of how many axes?
A.5
B.6
C.7
D.8


23. Freud's view of therapy was that it could
A.never be harmful
B.be harmful only if drugs were used
C.not be helpful if it could not also be harmful
D.only be harmful if a behavioral model was used


24. Compared to projective tests, personality inventories generally have
A.greater reliability and greater validity
B.greater reliability but poorer validity
C.poorer reliability but greater validity
D.poorer reliability and poorer validity


25. Studies show that most therapists these days are least likely to learn about the latest information on treatment of psychological disorders from
A.reading research articles
B.talking with professional colleagues
C.reading secondary sources like books
D.attending workshops and conferences


26. Which of the following tests is likely to have the lowest reliability?
A.the MMPI
B.the Draw-a-Person Test
C.a social skills inventory
D.the Beck Depression Inventory


27. Dr. Martin has just asked a potential client to tell about herself. As she responds, the next question is based on some interesting point she brought up. There are few constraints on the conversation. Dr. Martin has just
A.used free association
B.conducted an unstructured interview
C.used a behavioral assessment technique
D.employed (Roger's) nondirective therapy


28. Under the instructions of a psychologist, Tina's mother records the number of times Tina hits her brother at home, and what happens immediately prior to the hitting. In this situation, Tina's mother is
A.a participant observer
B.demonstrating observer bias
C.conducting structured observations
D.engaging in self-monitoring behavior


29. Youssef is the kind of person who breaks laws and rules with no feeling of guilt. He would probably score high on the MMPI-2 scale called
A.paranoia
B.schizophrenia
C.psychasthenia
D.psychopathic deviate


30. A panel of psychologists and psychiatrists evaluates the test results and clinical interviews of a client in a sanity hearing. They all arrive at the same diagnosis. The panel has high
A.internal validity
B.predictive validity
C.interrater reliability
D.test-retest reliability


31. Use of projective tests has decreased in the past few decades because projective tests often have
A.unimpressive interrater reliability
B.poor concurrent validity
C.a and b
D.neither a nor b


32. Dr. Ross and Dr. Carman agree that Suzette is suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. Their judgment is said to have
A.reliability
B.generalizability
C.external validity
D.internal validity


33. George is consumed with concerns that his house will burn down. Before he leaves he makes sure all his appliances are unplugged. He often has to go back home and check to make sure he did not leave any plugged in. Which MMPI-2 scale would he most likely score high on?
A.schizophrenia
B.psychasthenia
C.social introversion
D.psychopathic deviate


34. The technique that uses X-rays of the brain taken at different angles to create a static picture of the structure of the brain is called
A.electroencephalography
B.magnetic resonance imaging
C.positron emission tomography
D.computerized axial tomography


35. How does an MRI make a picture of the brain?
A.It measures the degree of activity in the various areas scanned.
B.It uses X-rays and pictures are taken at several different angles.
C.It relies on the magnetic properties of the atoms in the cells scanned.
D.It uses a recording of the electrical impulses produced by the neurons in the brain.


36. A response inventory which asks individuals to provide detailed information about their typical thoughts and assumptions is a(n)
A.social skill inventory
B.cognitive inventory
C.affective inventory
D.behavioral inventory


37. A woman with a potential sexual dysfunction would be most likely to be tested with a vaginal
A.positron emission tomograph (PET)
B.magnetic resonance imager (MRI)
C.polygraph
D.plethysmograph


38. Mental retardation is found in _______ of DSM-IV.
A.Axis I
B.Axis II
C.Axis III
D.Axis IV


39. Axis III includes
A.long standing problems
B.any relevant general medical condition
C.any relevant psychosocial or environmental problem
D.vivid clinical syndromes that typically cause significant impairment


40. What kind of a person are you? Is anything wrong today? What would you like to say this week? These questions are part of
A.a mental status exam
B.an interview schedule
C.a structured interview
D.an unstructured interview


41. A clinical diagnostician is dissatisfied with tests which cannot specify the type of brain damage or brain impairment clients have. Your best suggestion for that diagnostician would be to use
A.the Bender-Gestalt test
B.the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
C.the Beck Inventory
D.the Luria-Nebraska Battery


42. Because people who are manic have very elevated moods, a new test for mania includes questions about how happy the person feels and how often he or she laughs. This test has
A.face validity
B.content validity
C.construct validity
D.concurrent validity


43. One similarity between integrity tests and polygraph tests is that both
A.measure honesty of employees
B.show face, but not content, validity
C.demonstrate good predictive validity
D.have undetermined reliability and validity


44. Under what axis do long-standing problems fall in DSM-IV?
A.Axis I
B.Axis II
C.Axis III
D.Axis IV


45. Which of the following tests is a personality inventory?
A.DAP
B.MMPI-2
C.Rorschach test
D.Thematic Apperception Test


46. A clinician has developed a test which requires test takers to tell stories about a series of pictures of city skylines. Most likely, this new test is a(n)
A.neuropsychological test
B.personality inventory
C.response inventory
D.projective test


47. The initial problem in studying the effectiveness of psychotherapy is
A.defining what the treatment is
B.the range and complexity of treatments available
C.defining what it means for a treatment to be successful
D.deciding how to measure improvement, whether to use self-report, behavioral observations, rating scales, or something else


48. In order to study the general effectiveness of treatment, Smith and Glass and their colleagues performed
A.a meta-analysis of many studies
B.an analysis of their clinical cases
C.a survey of many clients who had received therapy
D.a controlled study that involved random assignment of subjects to treatment conditions


49. A self-report inventory designed to measure an individual's reactions in a particular social situation would most likely be used by a __________ therapist.
A.humanistic
B.biological
C.behavioral
D.psychodynamic


50. When watching a tape of either a white American woman or an African American woman, white therapists rated
A.depressed white Americans more negatively
B.depressed African Americans more negatively
C.non-depressed white Americans more negatively
D.non-depressed African Americans more negatively


51. The major focus of a clinical practitioner when dealing with a new client is to gather what type of information?
A.diagnostic
B.nomothetic
C.idiographic
D.dispassionate


52. A diagnostician showing "reading-in syndrome"
A.is able to overlook personal biases in making a diagnosis
B.is uncommonly perceptive, and makes unusually accurate diagnoses
C.relies too much on "by-the-book" diagnosis, and not enough on "clinical intuition"
D.overemphasizes information that suggests abnormality might exist


53. An institutionalized individual behaving abnormally says, "The doctor claims I'm schizophrenic! How else would you expect me to act?" The individual's comments reflect
A.misdiagnosis
B.reading-in syndrome
C.a misunderstanding of multiaxial diagnosis
D.self-fulfilling prophesy


54. Racine has recently broken up with her boyfriend and at the same time lost her job. Which axis of the DSM-IV would these factors be included under?
A.Axis II
B.Axis III
C.Axis IV
D.Axis V


55. One limit of the clinical interview as an assessment tool is that
A.each client is different
B.the approach is too rigid
C.the client may have a self-serving bias
D.the clinician sees the client too infrequently


56. If it were necessary to get the clearest and most accurate picture of the physical anatomy of the brain in order to aid in the diagnosis of a psychological disorder, the method of choice would be
A.electroencephalography (EEG)
B.magnetic resonance imagery (MRI)
C.positron emission tomography (PET)
D.computerized axial tomography (CAT)


57. A test is constructed to identify people who will develop schizophrenia. Of the 100 people the test identifies, 93 of them show signs of schizophrenia within five years. The test may be said to have high
A.internal reliability
B.predictive validity
C.concurrent validity
D.test-retest reliability


58. If a graph shows the years of the 20th century along the horizontal axis, and confidence in assessment of abnormality - from low confidence to high confidence - going up the vertical axis, then confidence in assessment of abnormality over the past 20 years would be a(n)
A."U"-shaped function (È)
B.inverted "U"-shaped function (Ç)
C.decreasing linear function (\)
D.increasing linear function (/)


59. A clinician who is using naturalistic observation would be most likely to do which of the following?
A.observe parent-child interactions in an office setting
B.observe parent-child interactions in the family's home
C.have a parent self-monitor family interactions in an office setting
D.have a parent self-monitor family interactions at home


60. What is the most effective therapy for treating phobias?
A.drug therapy
B.biological therapy
C.behavioral therapy
D.humanistic therapy


61. Standardizing and combining the findings of many different studies is called
A.outcome study
B.rapprochement
C.eclecticism
D.meta-analysis


62. Another term for developing norms for an assessment tool is
A.reliability
B.face validity
C.predictive validity
D.standardization


63. Compared to projective tests, personality inventories
A.have higher validity
B.are less standardized
C.have lower reliability
D.are more difficult to administer and evaluate


64. Which of the following is not a form of neuroimaging?
A.MRI
B.CAT scan
C.GSR
D.PET


65. A clinician gathers data about what things might be reinforcing to someone, in an attempt to find how an abnormal behavior might have been learned. This variety of assessment is called
A.psychodynamic
B.behavioral
C.structured
D.freeform


66. The knowledge that a person a clinician is about to interview has already been diagnosed as having an anxiety disorder could lead to
A.reactivity
B.observer bias
C.observer drift
D.increased accuracy of the diagnosis


67. A clinician has developed a new assessment tool. Clients write stories about their problems, then two different judges independently evaluate the stories in terms of how logically they are written. For this assessment technique to be useful, there must be
A.high interjudge reliability
B.low observer reliability
C.high split-half reliability
D.low test-retest reliability


68. DSM-IV, the most widely used classification system of mental disorders, divides the categories along five separate axes. The Axis I disorders are disorders
A.that relate to a person's general level of functioning
B.related to physiological ailments from which the person is currently suffering
C.that cause significant impairment and that may emerge and end at various points in the life cycle
D.that are long-standing and usually begin in childhood or adolescence, persisting in stable form into adult life


69. Axis IV includes
A.a global assessment of functioning
B.any relevant general medical condition
C.any relevant psychosocial or environmental problem
D.vivid clinical syndromes that typically cause significant impairment


70. The assessment instrument most likely to be used to detect subtle brain abnormalities would be the
A.neuropsychological test
B.intelligence test
C.psychophysiological test
D.projective test


71. A researcher seeks information to permit generalizations about abnormal functioning. This approach to abnormal behavior is called __________.

Answer:


72. Developers of DSM-IV hope that the categories they have chosen to include allow different clinicians to develop the same diagnosis for the same condition. That is, they hope they have a system with high __________.

Answer:


73. A person lies on a machine that creates a magnetic field around his head, exciting hydrogen atoms in the brain. The signals given off by these atoms are converted into a detailed picture of the brain. This procedure is called __________.

Answer:


74. For decades, Vincent van Gogh had been posthumously diagnosed as suffering from either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, other evaluations of his writings and drawings have led some researchers to suggest that his hypergraphia, hyperreligiosity, and aggression were all secondary symptoms of the neurological disorder __________.

Answer:


75. The assessment technique in which clinicians observe clients in their everyday environment, such as a school or home, is called __________.

Answer:


76. The tendency to interpret observed behavior consistent with an applied label is a special case of __________.

Answer:


77. If an examiner administered the same test now and in a week and correlated the results, a low correlation coefficient would indicate poor __________ for the test.

Answer:


78. A projective test that requires the client to describe what is happening in the scene portrayed in a vague picture is the __________ .

Answer:


79. The most likely theoretical orientation of a clinician who performs a functional analysis of a patient is __________.

Answer:


80. Recent evidence has been forwarded proposing that Vincent van Gogh suffered from a disorder that caused excessive fluid to build up on his inner ear, exerting enormous pressure and causing pain, nausea, vertigo, buzzing, and a host of other unpleasant experiences. This disorder is known as __________.

Answer:


81. During clinical observation, the observer becomes fatigued or changes the criteria that they have been using. This problem is known as __________.

Answer:


82. A client has just responded true or false to several hundred statements that may or may not apply to her (e.g., "I certainly feel useless much of the time"). Minutes later, she receives a profile sheet that evaluates her on ten clinical scales, including hypochondriasis, depression, and psychopathic deviation. She has completed the __________.

Answer:


83. A clinician asks one of his patients to record the frequency of his hallucinations and the circumstances under which they occur. This technique is called _______.

Answer:


84. The method of assessing brain structure that could not be used if the patient had a steel plate in her head is __________.

Answer:


85. A clinician who uses a published interview schedule is conducting a __________ interview.

Answer:



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