1. Jamal observed his parents' generous behavior throughout his childhood. As a result, he developed a positive and generous attitude toward the world. According to the behavioral model, Jamal has acquired his lifestyle through the process of
A.modeling
B.self-actualization
C.operant conditioning
D.classical conditioning


2. Evidence in support of the psychodynamic model has come primarily from
A.lab-based human experimentation
B.experiments carried out in "real world" settings
C.surveys
D.case studies


3. A previously neutral environmental event that becomes associated with the US is called the
A.learned stimulus
B.conditioned stimulus
C.unconditioned stimulus
D.discriminative stimulus


4. The first step in using the treatment called "systematic desensitization" is to
A.construct a fear hierarchy
B.construct a list of useful reinforcers
C.confront the client with the feared stimulus or thought
D.teach the skill of deep muscle relaxation over the course of several sessions


5. An assumption of determinism is that all abnormal behaviors
A.are learned
B.have causes
C.have physiological bases
D.are due to unconscious conflicts


6. According to Freud's psychodynamic theory, ineffective interaction of the id, ego, and superego is usually seen as being caused by the parents. It can lead to entrapment at a developmental level. This is called
A.fixation
B.neurosis
C.repression
D.displacement


7. The model most likely to use terms like "resistance" and "transference" is the
A.psychodynamic model
B.behavioral model
C.humanist-c-existential model
D.sociocultural model


8. If you recognize your worth as a person, Carl Rogers would say you have developed
A.spontaneity
B.unconditional self-regard
C.unconditional positive regard
D.conditions of worth


9. A client in a totally relaxed state vividly imagines formerly anxiety-arousing situations without feeling any lingering anxiety. Most likely, that client has just completed what type of therapy?
A.Freudian psychoanalysis
B.family systems
C.systematic desensitization
D.cognitive


10. "Humans are born with freedom, yet do not 'naturally' strive to reach their full growth potential." The psychologist who would most closely agree with this statement would be
A.behavioral
B.humanistic
C.existential
D.psychodynamic


11. Which of the following is true regarding dreams, according to psychoanalytic theory?
A.They are without real importance.
B.They reflect our unconscious desires and needs.
C.They are a means of reprocessing information necessary for survival.
D.They are the brain's attempts to understand abnormal electrical activity.


12. The form of "psychosurgery" performed in prehistoric times is called
A.lobotomy
B.trephining
C.ECT
D.laparoscopy


13. If you imagine biting into a big, juicy, sour lemon you are likely to salivate. The lemon is an example of
A.a conditioned stimulus
B.a conditioned response
C.an unconditioned stimulus
D.an unconditioned response


14. In Roger's therapy, the honesty and sincerity of the therapist is reflected in a concept called
A.congruence
B.accurate empathy
C.conditions of worth
D.unconditional positive regard


15. A primary focus of the community treatment approach to abnormality is
A.using drugs along with psychotherapy
B.prevention
C.homeostasis
D.rejecting all conventional forms of explaining abnormality


16. "When I was young, I met a large dog. I wasn't afraid of the dog, but as I tried to pet it, the dog snarled and jumped at me. I have been afraid of dogs ever since." A therapist who assumes this sentence describes a phobia acquired from classical conditioning most likely favors which model of abnormality?
A.humanistic-existential
B.behavioral
C.cognitive
D.psychodynamic


17. "Get it, and get it now!" might be an appropriate motto for the
A.id
B.superego
C.erogenous zone
D.ego


18. "Stay in the here and now! And use 'I' language! This therapy is not designed to be enjoyable." While this statement is a bit exaggerated, who would agree most strongly with it?
A.Fritz Perls
B.Joseph Wolpe
C.Abraham Maslow
D.Karen Horney


19. What we would call "conscience" is most like what Freud would call the
A.defense mechanism
B.superego
C.ego
D.erogenous zone


20. The model most likely to emphasize the importance of one's history of reward and punishment as the source of depression is the
A.psychodynamic model
B.behavioral model
C.humanist-c-existential model
D.sociocultural model


21. "When we try to establish how abnormality develops, we need to consider how individuals deal with the meaning of life, and with the value they find in living." A psychologist from which background would most strongly agree with this statement?
A.cognitive-behavioral
B.humanistic-existential
C.psychodynamic
D.cognitive


22. According to Freud's psychodynamic theory, the moral part of the personality is the
A.id
B.ego
C.superego
D.ego ideal


23. The model of abnormality that cites organic processes as being at the root of the behavior is the
A.biological model
B.sociocultural model
C.psychodynamic model
D.humanistic-existential model


24. If a client-centered therapist were treating a very anxious woman, the therapist would try to
A.point out her misconceptions
B.give insightful interpretations of her statements
C.identify the client's unreasonable ideas and feelings
D.show unconditional positive regard for her statements


25. Evidence that supports the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapies has come from
A.longitudinal experimental studies
B.individual clinical case studies
C.controlled correlational studies
D.carefully controlled experiments


26. The part of the personality that deals with the real world is the
A.id
B.ego
C.superego
D.ego ideal


27. A therapist listens carefully to a client's words, then attempts to show accurate empathy and genuineness. The hope is the client will self-examine with acceptance and honesty. Most likely, the therapist is
A.behavioral
B.cognitive-behavioral
C.psychodynamic
D.humanistic


28. Which of the following is true of psychological conflicts according to psychoanalysis?
A.They are sexual in nature.
B.They are the cause of most abnormal behavior.
C.They are only a problem when they reach consciousness.
D.They are unconscious, and therefore not a factor in conscious experience.


29. Henry goes into a fit of depression and self-abuse when anyone criticizes or expresses disapproval. Much of what he does is for the purpose of getting people to like him. Ellis would say that Henry's depression results in large part from
A.modeling
B.self-efficacy
C.basic irrational assumptions
D.unconscious feelings of loss


30. The model emphasizing the importance of conditioning in determining human actions is the __________ model.
A.psychodynamic
B.cognitive
C.humanistic-existential
D.behavioral


31. The model of abnormality that cites unconscious and internal processes and conflicts as being at the root of the behavior is the
A.cognitive model
B.behavioral model
C.sociocultural model
D.psychodynamic model


32. Freud believed that the source of the energy that drove the personality was
A.religious
B.innate
C.learned
D.conscious


33. What percentage of individual psychological disorders appears to be related to the action of single genes?
A.virtually 100%
B.about 80%
C.about 60%
D.less than 50%


34. Huntington's disease, which involves psychological as well as physical disorder, results from loss of cells in the
A.corpus callosum
B.basal ganglia
C.hippocampus
D.amygdala


35. According to Freud's psychodynamic theory, at birth the child is in the
A.oral stage
B.anal stage
C.phallic stage
D.latency stage


36. The model of abnormality that cites the processes and content of thinking as being at the root of the behavior is the
A.cognitive model
B.behavioral model
C.sociocultural model
D.psychodynamic model


37. An athlete who is in fact well-prepared nevertheless thinks just before a contest, "I can't do this! I need to be perfect, and I know I'm going to fail!" The theorist who would emphasize the illogical thinking process of this athlete as a source of poor performance most likely would support which model of abnormality?
A.psychodynamic
B.behavioral
C.existential
D.cognitive


38. Explicit propositions that we use to structure our thoughts and actions in an entire area under study are called
A.facts
B.theories
C.paradigms
D.hypotheses


39. The motivation to form relationships with others is a central theme of
A.ego theory
B.self theory
C.psychoanalytic theory
D.object relations theory


40. Teresa has been told that her course of therapy is likely to take a year or more because it involves the reshaping of the personality and that takes many sessions. This description of her therapy is most likely?
A.client-centered therapy
B.psychodynamic therapy
C.cognitive-behavioral therapy
D.existential-humanistic therapy


41. An important factor to consider in using drugs for the treatment of abnormality would be that
A.some people do not benefit from drugs alone
B.health plans do not pay for psychological drug treatments
C.drugs are not very effective in the treatment of schizophrenia
D.all of the above are important factors to consider


42. Combining any two or more treatment techniques results in an approach called
A.eclectic
B.reciprocal
C.couple therapy
D.group therapy


43. "Understanding a person's unconscious processes is critical in explaining abnormality." Which model of abnormality does this quote most closely represent?
A.behavioral
B.psychodynamic
C.cognitive
D.humanistic-existential


44. If, after conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented alone (without the unconditioned stimulus), it will eventually stop eliciting the conditioned response through a process called
A.extinction
B.habituation
C.punishment
D.unconditioning


45. Animals and humans learn without reinforcement. They learn just by watching. This form of learning is called
A.shaping
B.modeling
C.operant conditioning
D.classical conditioning


46. Barney's mother is taking cookies out of the oven. Which of the following would suggest most strongly that the id is firmly in control of Barney's behavior?
A.Barney grabs some of the cookies and runs.
B.Barney wants the cookies desperately but asks his mother for a couple.
C.Barney waits for his mother to leave the room, takes a few cookies, and steals away.
D.Barney asks for some cookies in a whinny voice and throws a tantrum when he is denied.


47. The largest group of today's psychotherapists describe their theoretical orientation as
A.eclectic
B.cognitive
C.behavioral
D.contemporary psychodynamic


48. Compared to psychodynamic therapy, behavior therapy tends to be
A.shorter duration and lower cost
B.shorter duration but higher cost
C.longer duration but lower cost
D.longer duration and higher cost


49. The model most likely to predict that transference will occur during therapy is the ________model.
A.psychodynamic
B.cognitive
C.humanistic-existential
D.behavioral


50. When Jose did not get the job he was sure that everything was going wrong, that his life was completely off track. This thought is an example of
A.depression
B.selective perception
C.an overgeneralization
D.unconditional negative regard


51. A therapist who believes people often hide from their responsibilities, and therefore often feel alienated, depressed, inauthentic - empty - would most likely be
A.humanistic
B.existential
C.psychodynamic
D.cognitive


52. A person reports experiencing tension and anxiety, but not mood swings. If a drug is prescribed as part of the treatment, the drug most likely would be
A.Prozac
B.Risperdal
C.lithium
D.Xanax


53. The term for the form of psychotherapy pioneered by Carl Rogers is
A.client-centered
B.insight
C.Gestalt
D.existential


54. "'Abnormal' behaviors - indeed, all behaviors - are acquired through learning." Which model of abnormality does this quote most closely represent?
A.behavioral
B.psychodynamic
C.cognitive
D.humanistic-existential


55. "Thoughts, as well as overt behaviors, are acquired and modified by various forms of conditioning." The orientation of the author of this quote most likely would be
A.cognitive-behavioral
B.humanistic-existential
C.psychodynamic-Gestalt
D.self-efficacious


56. According to family systems theory, families which show "disengagement" are characterized by
A.members who are overinvolved in one anothers' lives
B.parents who have a "laissez-faire" parenting style
C.children who very seldom fight
D.rigid boundaries between family members


57. A psychoanalyst says that a middle-aged patient appears to derive great pleasure from smoking, eating, and other mouth-related activities. The term the psychoanalyst would most likely use for this patient is
A.repressed
B.depressed
C.experiencing latency
D.fixated


58. Providing treatment as soon as it is needed, so that problems which are moderate or worse do not become long-term, is called
A.primary prevention
B.secondary prevention
C.tertiary prevention
D.quaternary prevention


59. Maslow and others would say that an individual who cares about others, is spontaneous, courageous, and independent, is
A.authentic
B.self-actualizing
C.role playing
D.experiencing catharsis


60. The Vienna Psychoanalytic Society included all of the following except
A.Joseph Wolpe
B.Alfred Adler
C.Sigmund Freud
D.Carl Gustav Jung


61. The evidence from research on the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy suggests that it is
A.extremely effective
B.most effective for hysteria
C.detrimental to most patients
D.not often more effective than no treatment


62. The only time that Timmy gets attention is when he misbehaves in a bizarre way. This is an example of
A.shaping
B.modeling
C.operant conditioning
D.classical conditioning


63. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used most often in the treatment of
A.schizophrenia
B.anxiety disorders
C.depression
D.bipolar disorder


64. A patient participates in weekly therapy for several years, gradually becoming aware of the impact early life events on present functioning. The form of psychotherapy the patient is receiving is called
A.working through (cognitive model)
B.dynamic focus (cognitive model)
C.working through (psychodynamic model)
D.dynamic focus (psychodynamic model)


65. Messages moving from neuron to neuron must cross tiny gaps called
A.dendrites
B.axons
C.neurotransmitters
D.synapses


66. The role of values and free choice is the central focus of the __________ model .

Answer:


67. The most common technique used by behavioral therapists to treat phobias is _______.

Answer:


68. Adolescents are in the __________ stage, according to psychoanalytic theory.

Answer:


69. The underlying, symbolic meaning of a dream is its _______ content.

Answer:


70. If a friend bites into a grapefruit in front of you, you are likely to salivate. The sight of the grapefruit is a __________.

Answer:


71. Relationships are the focus of the psychodynamic approach called ________ theory.

Answer:


72. Self-confidence is similar to the concept of __________ in Bandura's behavioral approach.

Answer:


73. According to Roger's humanistic approach, children need __________ to later self-actualize.

Answer:


74. If you do not continue to reinforce a behavior, it gradually declines. This is called _________.

Answer:


75. Jess is nervous, insecure, miserable. At the root of it is a secret feeling that he has to be good at everything he tries and is worthless he misses in even one thing. If interpreted by a cognitive therapist this would most probably be an example of a(n) _________.

Answer:


76. Roger's humanistic approach to therapy involves the use of approval and support for everything that the client says. This is called __________.

Answer:


77. The patient says whatever comes into her head in the psychodynamic technique called __________.

Answer:


78. According to psychoanalytic theory, the basic innate part of the personality is the __________.

Answer:


79. Infants are in the __________ stage, according to psychoanalytic theory.

Answer:


80. Challenging a client's irrational assumption is a specific feature of __________ therapy.

Answer:



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