1. Which of the following would be the best design to study the effects of disasters on the survivors?
A.an experiment
B.a quasi-experiment
C.a natural experiment
D.a double-blind strategy


2. The function of the double-blind design is to guard against
A.participant expectancies.
B.experimenter expectancies.
C.both a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


3. Which of the following is likely to have the lowest external validity?
A.a case study
B.an experiment
C.a national survey
D.a correlational study


4. There were ten new cases of schizophrenia in a small town in the Midwest this week. This observation refers to the __________ of schizophrenia in this small population.
A.risk
B.incidence
C.prevalence
D.epidemiology


5. If researchers studied Vietnam veterans for 30 years after their return, the study would be
A.epidemiological.
B.longitudinal.
C.incidental.
D.experimental.


6. The group of participants that is not exposed to the independent variable under investigation (in an experiment) is called the
A.control group.
B.confound group.
C.dependent group.
D.experimental group.


7. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the weakest relationship?
A.-.95
B.-.06
C.+.30
D.+.54


8. The following experiment is conducted to study the causes of aggression in children. Half the children eat a sugared cereal; the remaining half eat cornflakes. The number of aggressive acts displayed by the children in a one-hour play period after breakfast is then recorded. In this experiment,
A.sugared cereal is the dependent variable and cornflakes is the independent variable.
B.breakfast is the independent variable, and the group of children is the dependent variable.
C.the type of cereal is the dependent variable, and the number of aggressive responses is the independent variable.
D.the type of cereal is the independent variable, and the number of aggressive responses is the dependent variable.


9. Freud's study of Little Hans is an example of
A.an experiment.
B.a correlational study.
C.the nomothetic approach.
D.the idiographic approach.


10. The total number of cases of a disorder in the population is called the
A.risk.
B.incidence.
C.prevalence.
D.rate of occurrence.


11. A psychologist studies memory techniques in adult volunteers and learns how to facilitate memory. He applies what he learns to the new class of students in his freshman psychology course. He has faith in
A.the internal validity of his study.
B.the external validity of his results.
C.the content validity of his technique.
D.the conceptual validity of memory.


12. General principles that explain the underlying causes or nature of abnormal behavior are called
A.theoretical.
B.nomothetic.
C.idiographic.
D.correlational.


13. Which of the following correlation coefficients is of the highest magnitude?
A.+.05
B.-.81
C.+.60
D.-.01


14. Factors other than the independent variable may also act on the dependent variable. If these factors vary systematically with the independent variable, they are called __________ variables.
A.irrelevant
B.confounding
C.blind variables
D.controlled variables


15. The number of new cases of a disorder in the population that emerge in a particular time interval is called the
A.incidence.
B.prevalence.
C.correlation.
D.epidemiology.


16. A researcher is interested in the effects of a new drug for treating anxiety. He decides to study it in rats by conditioning the fear of a high-pitched noise and then testing rats' reactions with and without the drug. This is an example of
A.a natural experiment.
B.an analogue experiment.
C.a quasi-experimental study.
D.a correlation.


17. Another term for experimenter bias caused by the experimenter unintentionally transmitting expectations to the research participants is the
A.Rosenthal effect.
B.Triple-blind effect.
C.Buffalo Creek effect.
D.Quasi-experimental design.


18. In a study of eating disorders, some participants in both the control and experimental groups are over 30. Their age is
A.subject bias.
B.experimenter bias.
C.methodological bias.
D.random variation.


19. Freud's study of Little Hans involved
A.letters sent to Freud by Hans' father.
B.Freud's observation of Hans with horses.
C.Use of antianxiety medication.
D.Interviews with Hans' mother.


20. "The heavier you are, the more food you are likely to eat." If it is true, this statement expresses
A.no correlation at all.
B.a causal relationship.
C.a positive correlation.
D.a negative correlation.


21. The major advantage of a correlational study over a case study is that it
A.allows us to determine causation.
B.is more individualized.
C.has better external validity.
D.requires fewer participants.


22. In a scientific experiment, the variable manipulated or controlled by the experimenter is called the
A.confounding variable.
B.alternative variable.
C.dependent variable.
D.independent variable.


23. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in older men seen at a clinic tells you
A.the total number of older men with sexual dysfunction at the clinic.
B.the risk of a man developing a sexual dysfunction.
C.the number of new cases of sexual dysfunction over a period of time.
D.the rate of sexual dysfunction in the community.


24. Case studies are helpful for all of the following reasons except that
A.their results may inspire new therapeutic techniques.
B.their results can be generalized.
C.they may be a source of new ideas about behavior.
D.they offer opportunities to study unusual problems.


25. Dr. Tim required half of a group of healthy volunteers to study a passage for 1 hour. The other half of the participants studied for 15 minutes. She then administered a test of their memory of details from the passage. What was the dependent variable?
A.the study time
B.the memory test
C.the reading passage
D.the results of the memory test


26. The idea that children from single-parent families do show more depression than those from two-parent families is a(n)
A.variable.
B.experiment.
C.correlation.
D.hypothesis.


27. The prevalence rate for a disorder will _________ the incidence rate.
A.always be the same as
B.always be higher than
C.always be the same or higher than
D.always be lower than


28. One important criticism of the above research is that it is a
A.medication-withdrawal study.
B.symptom-exacerbation study.
C.multiple-baseline study.
D.placebo study.


29. Which of the following could be an example of a case study?
A.a study involving use of a control group
B.a long-term study of a clinical client
C.both a and b
D.neither a nor b


30. The ability to generalize results from a study of certain individuals to other individuals not studied is called
A.construct validity.
B.context validity.
C.internal validity.
D.external validity.


31. A characteristic that can change is called
A.a fact.
B.a variable.
C.a hypothesis.
D.an observation.


32. A case study differs from a single-subject experiment because single-subject experiments involve
A.observation of a subject before and after independent variable manipulation.
B.extended observations of a particular individual.
C.both a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


33. Experiments are consistent with the __________ approach.
A.theoretical
B.nomothetic
C.idiographic
D.correlational


34. The clinical practitioner would be more likely than the clinical researcher to rely on which method(s) of investigation?
A.case study with a single participant
B.experimental method with many participants
C.both a and b
D.neither a nor b


35. Not all participants are the same. Researchers use __________ to reduce the possibility that existing systematic differences between groups are responsible for observed differences after experimental manipulation.
A.a control group
B.random selection
C.random assignment
D.an experimental group


36. We have 60 people suffering from ordinary headache. Twenty get aspirin, 20 get a sugar pill that looks like aspirin, and 20 get nothing at all. In 65 percent of the aspirin group, the headache goes away. In the other two groups the "cure" rates are 35 and 5 percent, respectively. Other than the drug condition, the participants are treated identically. This study
A.demonstrates a double-blind design.
B.is an experimental study.
C.contains an important confound.
D.has three dependent variables.


37. In preparation for a study of the effectiveness of an antischizophrenia drug, an assistant puts all drugs into capsules of the same color and codes them. The assistant will have no part in administering the drug. Neither the subjects nor the experimenter will know who gets which drug. This is an example of a
A.single-blind design.
B.double-blind design.
C.triple-blind design.
D.quasi-experimental design


38. Which of the following is the best example of the nomothetic approach?
A.test battery given to an autistic child
B.detailed interview with the mother of an autistic child
C.review of records to see if autism runs in families in general
D.description of a painting made by an autistic child


39. External validity refers to the extent to which the results of a study
A.rule out alternative explanations.
B.are the result of a single variable.
C.apply to subjects and situations other than the ones studied.
D.support the theory being tested.


40. As opposed to clinical practitioners, who search for individualistic understanding of human behavior, clinical researchers search for general truths about abnormality. The approach of clinical researchers is
A.idiosyncratic.
B.nomosynthetic.
C.idiographic.
D.nomothetic.


41. The form of correlational research that seeks to find how many new cases of a disorder occur in a group in a given time period is termed
A.longitudinal (incidence).
B.longitudinal (prevalence).
C.epidemiological (incidence).
D.epidemiological (prevalence).


42. In the study , Group A is the
A.experimental group.
B.control group.
C.correlational group.
D.cross-sectional group.


43. In an experiment on the effects of two new drugs on mood, neither the patients, researchers, nor those who are evaluating mood know which drug the patients are getting. The study is ______ blind.
A.single
B.double
C.triple
D.quadruple


44. Case studies are useful for
A.forming general laws of behavior.
B.studying low-incidence syndromes.
C.developing relationships among variables.
D.determining the cause underlying a particular abnormal symptom.


45. Internal validity reflects how well a study
A.rules out the effects of all variables except those being studied.
B.can be generalized to others that are not studied directly.
C.appears to be measuring what it is designed to measure.
D.predicts to some future behavior.


46. All of the following are merits of the correlational method except
A.it allows for prediction.
B.it can be analyzed statistically.
C.results can be generalized.
D.it allows for in-depth study of an individual.


47. If stress levels and physical health are negatively correlated, we know that
A.stress causes people to have poor health.
B.as stress increases, health decreases.
C.poor health causes people to experience stress.
D.mental illness causes both stress and poor health.


48. In the ABAB (reversal) design, condition "A" is a(n)
A.independent variable application.
B.dependent variable application.
C.no-treatment condition.
D.experimental condition.


49. What could be a potential confound in this study?
A.Having some seriously ill and some moderately ill patients in both groups
B.Having all patients come from the same clinic
C.Having the drug group be inpatients and the placebo group be outpatients
D.Not previously testing the drug on primates


50. If you were to graph the relationship between the number of negative life events experienced in the last month and that person's perception of stress, you would probably find
A.a vertical line.
B.a horizontal line.
C.an upward-sloping line (to the right).
D.a downward-sloping line (to the right).


51. What is the term for studies that have the structure of experiments except that they use groups that already exist, instead of randomly assigning participants to control and experimental groups?
A.quasi-experiments
B.natural experiments
C.correlational experiments
D.developmental experiments


52. A study of a single person used to explain the underlying causes or nature of abnormal behavior in that person is consistent with the __________ approach.
A.theoretical
B.nomothetic
C.idiographic
D.correlational


53. A researcher works to reduce the amount of disruptive talking a child does in school. The researcher first measures the disruptive talking frequency, then institutes treatment, while continuing to measure the behavior. Later, treatment is removed, as measurement continues. Finally, the researcher re-introduces the treatment. This type of study is a
A.double-blind design.
B.triple-blind design.
C.multiple-baseline design.
D.reversal design.


54. The incidence of HIV+ results on campus tells you
A.one's risk for becoming HIV+.
B.the number of new HIV+ cases measured in a time period.
C.the total number of HIV+ cases at a given point.
D.the HIV+ rate compared to the national average.


55. Which of the following is an example of an idiographic approach to knowledge?
A.a clinical evaluation
B.an experiment on animals
C.a quasi-experimental study
D.a correlational study of the relationship between parental discipline practices and later psychopathology


56. The use of the single-blind design is an attempt to reduce the influence of
A.experimenter bias.
B.dependent variables.
C.subject bias.
D.confounding variables.


57. In this research question, "Do children from single-parent families show more depression than those from two-parent families," there are _____ known variables.
A.0
B.1
C.2
D.3


58. The variable manipulated in an experiment is called
A.a confound.
B.the control variable.
C.the dependent variable.
D.the independent variable.


59. For people to decide about aprticipating in psychological research, they must be given full knowledge of the potential benefits and risks. This principle is called
A.risk disclosure.
B.benefit analysis.
C.informed consent.
D.privacy.


60. Correlation coefficients indicate
A.the strength and direction of the relationship between variables.
B.the cause-and-effect relationship between variables.
C.the internal and external validity between variables.
D.the significance and variability between variables.


61. Any study that compares the responses of men and women (the "independent variable") is best be described as a(n) _________ design.

Answer:


62. Jack was doing a study on anxiety. One group was asked to estimate how many years each had to live. The other group was asked to estimate how many months to their next vacation. He then gave each of his participants the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and scored them. The score on this test is an example of a(n) __________.

Answer:


63. The phase in a single-subject design that is comparable to a control group is the __________.

Answer:


64. Dr. Han did his experimental manipulation and then tested his experimental group at 9 A.M. and his control group at 9 P.M. His study contains a ___________.

Answer:


65. Sound research in abnormal psychology uses the ___________ method

Answer:


66. If a participant does not know in which condition she is being tested, she is participating in a ___________ design.

Answer:


67. If a researcher did a study of anxiety and used cats for subjects instead of people, she would be doing a(n) __________ study

Answer:


68. Ian made the participants in one of his groups anxious by making loud noises but kept the participants in the other group in quiet surroundings. The presence of noise in this case is an example of a(n) __________.

Answer:


69. Clinical researchers form general, or ___________, knowledge about the nature, causes, and treatments of abnormal behavior.

Answer:


70. Freud's report on Little Hans is an example of a(a) ___________.

Answer:


71. Studies that determine the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population are called ___________ studies.

Answer:


72. An investigation is said to have ___________ when findings of the investigation can be generalized beyond the immediate study.

Answer:


73. Jason met with a researcher several times. He was interviewed, he took tests, and he was physically evaluated. In addition the researcher studied his school and employment records and interviewed key people in his life. The type of study being done by the researcher is best called a(n) __________.

Answer:


74. Tall people tend to have larger feet than short people. This statement indicates a(n) ___________ correlation between foot size and height.

Answer:


75. Correlations cannot be used to conclude that a ___________ relationship exists between two variables.

Answer:


76. Sammy agreed to be in the study of memory but he had not anticipated how he would feel about returning to the lab every other year for 10 years. He is involved in a __________, ________, and _________ study.

Answer:


77. The strength or magnitude of a correlation can vary from ___________ to ___________.

Answer:


78. Dr. Pliny did not tell her subjects which group (what level of the independent variable) they were in. She did this to guard against __________.

Answer:


79. If a result is statistically significant, it is unlikely to be the result of __________.

Answer:


80. The understanding of human behavior that clinical practitioners seek is usually individual. The term for it is ___________.

Answer:



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