1. According to a recent study by Henry Wechlser and his colleges at the Harvard School of Public Health, the best predictor of college binge drinking is
A.being an athlete.
B.being a white male.
C.having a business major.
D.being in a social fraternity.


2. Consumption of which drug has decreased among Americans since the mid-1980s?
A.cocaine
B.ethyl alcohol
C.caffeine
D.LSD


3. Lola's physician prescribed diet pills. Which of the following drugs are they most likely to have contained?
A.cocaine
B.morphine
C.barbiturates
D.amphetamines


4. The scarring of the liver caused by alcohol consumption is known as
A.cirrhosis.
B.hemorrhaging.
C.vasoconstriction.
D.Korsakoff's syndrome.


5. During his first night in the detoxification unit, Quent developed what seemed like a case of the flu. He ached all over and had diarrhea. He was probably withdrawing from
A.heroin.
B.alcohol.
C.cocaine.
D.cannabis.


6. In behavioral self-control training, patients are taught to
A.monitor their own drug intake.
B.chastise themselves for relapsing.
C.share their feelings with their families.
D.mentally pair aversive stimuli with drug intake.


7. "Drug dependence may develop because one finds drug use reinforcing." Which view of substance abuse would applaud this statement most enthusiastically?
A.biological
B.sociocultural
C.behavioral
D.psychodynamic


8. While under the influence of LSD, Matilda believes that she can feel the sounds around her. This effect is known as
A.synesthesia.
B.intoxication.
C.hallucination.
D.the psychedelic effect.


9. A newly-developed drug causes users to lose some muscle control, slurring their speech and slowing central nervous system activity. Most likely this new drug is a(n)
A.depressant
B.hallucinogen.
C.stimulant.
D.polydrug.


10. Apparently the most dangerous withdrawal symptoms are produced when an addicted person stops taking
A.heroin.
B.cocaine.
C.barbiturates.
D.amphetamine.


11. About what percent of users of some form of cocaine are considered abusers of, or dependent on, the drug?
A.10%
B.20%
C.40%
D.over 50%


12. Unlike the opioid drugs morphine and heroin, methadone
A.is not narcotic.
B.is a central nervous system depressor.
C.causes nausea.
D.is synthetic.


13. All of the following are sedative-hypnotic drugs except
A.barbiturates.
B.benzodiazepines.
C.opiates.
D.all of the above are sedative-hypnotic drugs.


14. Most evidence for the effectiveness of self-help programs comes from
A.carefully monitored longitudinal studies.
B.laboratory experimentation and generalization of findings.
C.cross-sectional surveys of self-help program participants.
D.testimonials from those who have gone through such a program.


15. An individual who has recently taken a drug angrily grabs some car keys and attempts to drive home. The person appears anxious, and keeps bragging that driving the car won't really be that difficult. Most likely, that person is experiencing
A.delirium tremens.
B.cocaine intoxication.
C.decreasing cross-tolerance.
D.hallucinosis.


16. A highschooler says to you, "What's the big deal about using pot? How can it hurt me?" The most accurate reply you could make is
A."if you're high, you won't be able to remember what you just learned."
B."THC in your body can produce dangerous flashbacks when you get older."
C."even a moderate dose of THC can produce perceptual distortions and coma."
D."you're right - it really won't affect you much in school."


17. Jenny simply cannot get up in the morning without her upper, those little amphetamine pills her friend gave her. She feels she must take them every day. She has
A.a drug tolerance.
B.a substance abuse disorder.
C.an organic mental syndrome.
D.developed a tolerance for the drug.


18. Serina has just had a shot of heroin. She feels intense pleasure very quickly. This is
A.a nod.
B.a rush.
C.a high.
D.intoxication.


19. An alcoholic in the midst of delirium tremens is given benzodiazepine to help deal with alcohol withdrawal. The alcoholic has experienced
A.a synergistic effect.
B.polysubstance abuse.
C.cross-tolerance.
D."compassionate use."


20. Studies attempting to relate personality traits to potential for developing substance abuse show that
A.one key personality trait - impulsivity - predicts substance abuse.
B.one key personality trait - dependence - predicts substance abuse.
C.a specific group of traits predicts substance abuse.
D.no single trait or combination of traits predicts substance abuse.


21. A person who took a drug an hour or two ago sits alone, quietly and intensely listening - so the person says - to the sap running in a tree, the leaves of which appear a brilliant purple to the drug user. Most likely, the person has recently used
A.LSD.
B.cocaine.
C.marijuana.
D.methamphetamine.


22. The proportion of Americans over the age of 12 who smoke is about
A.10%.
B.28%.
C.40%.
D.48 %.


23. The fact that a self-help group like Alcoholics Anonymous, which provides peer support and specific guidelines, helps many in their struggle with alcoholism, supports most directly which form of therapy?
A.sociocultural
B.cognitive-behavioral
C.psychodynamic
D.biological


24. Those who used marijuana in the 1960s were less likely to develop drug dependence than users around the year 2000 because marijuana available in the 1960s had
A.much less THC.
B.much more THC.
C.no hallucinogenic effects.
D.more powerful hallucinogenic effects.


25. Kelly is a long-time serious drinker. In the last year she has started having huge memory lapses. When this happens she makes up wild stories to help her fill in what she does not remember. This symptom is called
A.confabulation.
B.Korsakoff's syndrome.
C.Wernicke's encephalopathy.
D.alcohol-induced psychotic disorder.


26. Alcohol works as a central nervous system depressant by
A.stimulating the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters.
B.blocking the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters.
C.unbinding receptors on neurons.
D.binding to receptors on neurons.


27. The duration of most of the effects of cannabis is about
A.1 hour.
B.3-6 hours.
C.a day.
D.a week.


28. A combination of alcohol abuse and a vitamin-B deficiency can lead to
A.delirium tremens.
B.Tourette's syndrome.
C.Korsakoff's Syndrome.
D.alcohol-induced psychotic disorder.


29. A 150-lb male who drinks 15 cans of beer in an hour runs the risk of coma or death from a high dose of ethyl alcohol. How many cups of coffee would that same person have to drink to produce the same level of risk from a high caffeine dose?
A.10
B.25
C.50
D.100


30. In the 1990s, the Food and Drug Administration ruled that which of the following could legally be used for medical reasons?
A.marijuana
B.THC capsules
C.a and b
D.neither a nor b


31. The idea that stimuli that give pleasure lead to brain processes that counteract the effects of that pleasure is consistent with an explanation for drug use based on
A.opponent processes.
B.operant conditioning.
C.classical conditioning.
D.psychodynamic principles.


32. A patient in an alcohol rehabilitation center tells you a detailed story about growing up in the mountains of Tennessee. Later, you find out that the person in fact never even visited Tennessee. A day later you visit the patient again, and the patient does not recognize you. Most likely, the patient is suffering from
A.fetal alcohol syndrome.
B.cirrhosis.
C.withdrawal delirium.
D.Korsakoff's syndrome.


33. After the accident, Kendra was taken to the emergency room with broken legs and arms. They almost immediately gave her a shot that made her feel much better. The shot was probably
A.morphine.
B.a sedative.
C.a barbiturate.
D.an amphetamine.


34. Amphetamine users run an unusually high risk of becoming dependent because amphetamines
A.inhibit the release of neurotransmitters.
B.prevent the body from experiencing identifiable withdrawal effects.
C.produce feelings of euphoria, along with pleasant auditory distortions.
D.produce drug tolerance very quickly.


35. A manager who feels anxious about speaking in front of large groups frequently has a couple of glasses of wine to "relax" before beginning to speak. This "medicinal" use of alcohol can be explained most easily
A.by opponent-process theory.
B.through molecular biological analysis.
C.by reward theory.
D.as genetic predisposition.


36. The drug which would produce effects similar to what the neurotransmitters called endorphins produce - pleasurable, calming feelings - is
A.heroin.
B.LSD.
C.Benzedrine.
D.methamphetamine.


37. Which of the following would be considered a "drug," a substance which could be abused?
A.heroin
B.caffeine
C.a and b
D.neither a nor b


38. Barry drank quite a lot at the biggest party of the year. Later, he had trouble falling asleep, so he took a barbiturate. If he dies from respiratory failure during the night, it is probably because the alcohol and barbiturate had
A.a synergistic effect.
B.antagonistic actions.
C.complementary actions.
D.a cross-tolerance effect.


39. The stimulant used by more people in the world than any other is
A.nicotine.
B.cocaine (including free-based and crack forms).
C.amphetamines.
D.caffeine.


40. One of the features of Alcoholics Anonymous is
A.peer support.
B.residential services.
C.alcohol maintenance.
D.antagonistic medication.


41. Mendon began by taking one amphetamine a day to control his appetite. After a month or so it did not work as well but two pills did. This is an example of
A.tolerance.
B.resistance.
C.withdrawal.
D.dependence.


42. Barbiturates primarily affect the neurotransmitter
A.GABA.
B.serotonin.
C.dopamine.
D.norepinephrine.


43. If you were trying to convince a friend not to be a cocaine user, what would you cite as the greatest risk coming from cocaine use?
A.being assaulted in drug-related crimes
B.contracting AIDS
C.damage to mucus membranes
D.overdose effects


44. Which of the following would be most likely to be alcoholic?
A.a lower socioeconomic class city dweller
B.a lower socioeconomic class resident of a small town
C.a higher socioeconomic class city dweller
D.a higher socioeconomic class resident of a small town


45. Which of the following has been identified as a problem in designing and evaluating treatment methods for substance abuse?
A.Virtually all patients relapse.
B.Antagonistic drugs are not legal.
C.It has been difficult to precisely define substance abuse.
D.The problem is a biological one and does not respond to psychological treatment.


46. A wounded veteran of the U.S. Civil War suffering from "soldiers' disease" most likely was suffering from
A.morphine dependence.
B.THC-induced symptoms from wound bindings made of hemp cloth.
C.alcohol dependence.
D.cirrhosis caused by drinking medicine dissolved in ethyl alcohol.


47. The hallucinations and distortions of perception some drugs produce are called
A.intoxication.
B.substance dependence.
C.substance abuse.
D.hallucinosis.


48. Sue has a drinking problem. She gets so tense that she has to take a drink. Her therapist is trying to teach her to use relaxation therapy when she gets tense. She hopes that this will be used instead of the drug. This is an example of
A.aversion therapy.
B.covert sensitization.
C.contingency training.
D.alternative behaviors therapy.


49. Research indicates that the most important neurotransmitter in the "pleasure pathway" of the brain is probably
A.acetylcholine.
B.anandamide.
C.dopamine.
D.one of the endorphins.


50. The use of methadone in drug maintenance programs is controversial because methadone
A.use increases the risk of contracting AIDS.
B.costs over $50 a day per person treated.
C.produces withdrawal more difficult than from heroin.
D.needs to be taken several times per day on a rigid schedule.


51. According to Richard Solomon's __________ theory, drug-induced euphoria leads, upon extensive use, to negative aftereffects that include cravings and withdrawal symptoms.

Answer:


52. The most widely used stimulant in the world is __________.

Answer:


53. After the injection of heroin, a narcotic abuser feels an intense feeling called a __________.

Answer:


54. Several minutes after Lannie took the sugar cube she began to see horrible and scary things like black bugs eating her finger. She was experiencing a(n) __________.

Answer:


55. Alcoholism sometimes leads to a disease marked by confusion and extreme memory impairment. This disease is called __________.

Answer:


56. When Tod arrived at the center they gave him a physical and then allowed time for him to go through withdrawal and get the drugs and their effects out of his system. This process is called __________ .

Answer:


57. Learning coping strategies to deal with situations known to stimulate drinking is part of __________ training.

Answer:


58. Crack is a form of __________.

Answer:


59. Even years after taking LSD for the last time, a user may randomly experience__________.

Answer:


60. The brain's natural or endogenous opioids are called __________.

Answer:



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