1. A suicide note provides no reason for the suicide. The writer is most likely
A.younger than 40.
B.40 to 49 years old.
C.50 to 59 years old.
D.over 60 years of age.


2. The following is an example of what Shneidman refers to as a ______________. Sylvia shot herself by placing the gun barrel in her mouth, in the middle of a dense woods, where she knew she wouldn't be heard or found.
A.death seeker
B.death initiator
C.death ignorer
D.death darer


3. When answering the telephone of a suicide hot line, the first step for the counselor is to
A.formulate a plan.
B.establish a positive relationship.
C.understand and clarify the problem.
D.assess the caller's suicide potential.


4. Of people who use alcohol just prior to committing suicide, what percentage are actually intoxicated?
A.10%
B.15%
C.25%
D.35%


5. Which of the following does not make one at higher risk for suicide?
A.having family members who have committed suicide.
B.learning about suicide in abnormal psychology
C.having an alcohol abuse problem
D.experiencing uncontrollable and repeated stressful events


6. Commonly observed triggers for suicide include all of the following except
A.being in therapy.
B.heavy alcohol use.
C.modeling of someone who committed suicide.
D.stressful life events.


7. One of the factors that is believed to account for differences in the suicide rates of different countries is
A.climate.
B.religious affiliation and beliefs.
C.prevalence of mental disorders.
D.governmental regulations regarding suicide.


8. What do results on gender and suicide risk not show?
A.Women attempt suicide more often than men.
B.Men use more lethal means to commit suicide than women.
C.Women succeed at committing suicide more often than men.
D.The elderly are more likely to commit suicide than children.


9. At a suicide prevention center, you hear the following from the counselor. Which one of the goals and techniques does it best represent? "Will you promise me that you will call again if you ever feel like killing yourself again?"
A.formulating a plan
B.assessing suicide potential
C.understanding and clarifying the problem
D.assessing and mobilizing the caller's resources


10. About how many suicides are attempted annually in the United States?
A.30,000
B.120,000
C.600,000
D.2 million


11. The mood and thoughts of suicidal people are most often characterized as
A.anxious and irrational.
B.angry and aggressive.
C.sad and hopeless.
D.tense and manic.


12. Which of the following statements regarding suicide is true?
A.Native Americans have the highest suicide rate of any racial group in the United States.
B.The suicide rate for whites in the United States is the same as that for blacks.
C.Married people are more likely to commit suicide than adults who are single.
D.Adolescents are more likely to attempt suicide than those in any other age group.


13. Which of the following types of people would be least likely to commit suicide?
A.single
B.divorced
C.widowed
D.married


14. Which statement about the success of suicide prevention programs is most accurate?
A.People at greatest risk for suicide are most likely to call prevention centers.
B.Of those who call, fewer commit suicide than would be expected by chance.
C.Suicide rates are consistently lower in communities that have centers.
D.People thinking of suicide know about and readily call centers.


15. About what percentage of people who commit suicide use alcohol just prior to the act?
A.10%
B.20%
C.35%
D.60%


16. At a suicide prevention center, you hear the following from the counselor. Which one of the goals and techniques does it best represent? "Can you tell me what you think are the most important factors that are making you feel hopeless right now? If you could change three things about your life, what would they be?"
A.formulating a plan
B.assessing suicide potential
C.understanding and clarifying the problem
D.assessing and mobilizing the caller's resources


17. The traditional view of suicide in Japan is that
A.suicide is a sin against the gods.
B.humans should imitate animal suicide.
C.the life of the individual is more important than the social order.
D.suicide is an acceptable solution to a serious problem that would cause shame.


18. Treatment for suicide attempters
A.appears not to be effective.
B.typically involves medical and psychological care.
C.is provided in about 90% of cases.
D.shows that the cognitive group method is most successful.


19. Miguel lost all of his family when his village was bombed. He throws himself off a cliff to die, in order to be reunited with them. Shneidman would classify Miguel as a
A.death darer.
B.death seeker.
C.death ignorer.
D.death initiator.


20. According to Shneidman, how do death darers primarily differ from other categories?
A.They are ambivalent about their deaths.
B.They intend to end their lives with their action.
C.They believe that death will not end their existence.
D.They believe they are merely speeding up an ongoing process.


21. Which of the following is an example of retrospective analysis?
A.Researchers ask college students to write suicide notes in order to study what they think is the motivation for suicide.
B.Therapists who have patients who committed suicide are interviewed to look for commonalties.
C.Adolescents at high risk for suicide are treated through a suicide prevention center.
D.Those who have made suicide attempts are part of a suicide education program.


22. Suicide prevention programs
A.involve the use of paraprofessionals.
B.offer crisis interventions.
C.are often found in emergency rooms as well as clinics.
D.all of the above.


23. "No neurotic harbors thoughts of suicide which he has not turned back upon himself from murderous impulses against others." This quote would most likely be made by a
A.humanist theorist.
B.cognitive theorist.
C.behavioral theorist.
D.psychodynamic theorist.


24. The following is an example of what Shneidman refers to as a ______________. Knowing she was terminally ill, Bonnie swallowed a handful of barbiturates in order to save herself and her family from the final painful months of her life.
A.death seeker
B.death initiator
C.death ignorer
D.death darer


25. The following is an example of what Shneidman refers to as a ______________. Cecil and Jeanne, teenagers, made a love pact, jumping from a cliff in order to be with each other for eternity.
A.death seeker
B.death initiator
C.death ignorer
D.death darer


26. Gloria has been contemplating suicide for several weeks. She decides one day, with great intention, clarity, and commitment, that she will kill herself. Within minutes, she has successfully committed suicide. According to Shneidman, Gloria is a
A.death darer.
B.death seeker.
C.death ignorer.
D.death initiator.


27. The leading theories designed to explain suicide
A.are supported by a significant body of research.
B.address the full range of suicide acts.
C.satisfactorily explain suicidal behavior in the elderly but not the young.
D.none of the above.


28. The explanation of suicide as due to loss of loved ones and self-directed aggression is consistent with which theoretical perspective?
A.cognitive
B.humanist
C.behavioral
D.psychodynamic


29. Modern suicide notes are different from notes written in the 1940s and 1950s in that modern suicide notes
A.often show decreased emotion.
B.demonstrate more limited thinking.
C.show more profound disruption of emotions.
D.demonstrate more ambivalence toward the suicide act.


30. Which network was particularly helpful in preventing a large number of copycat suicides after the death of Kurt Cobain?
A.MTV
B.PBS
C.ESPN
D.CBS


31. In research on the relationship between serotonin and suicide, serotonin seems most related to
A.aggression.
B.introversion.
C.selfishness.
D.shame.


32. Karl Menninger has distinguished a category called chronic suicide, in which people's actions lead to their own deaths. People in this category
A.repeatedly try to commit suicide, but are in fact calling for help.
B.behave in life-endangering ways over an extended period of time.
C.do not believe that their self-inflicted death will mean the end of their existence.
D.actively and intently pursue the means to their death and are committed to completing the act.


33. When talking with a potential suicidal individual on a suicide hot line, the final step for the counselor is to
A.formulate a plan.
B.establish a positive relationship.
C.understand and clarify the problem.
D.assess the caller's suicide potentia.l


34. According to Durkheim, suicides by people over whom society has little or no control and who are not concerned with the norms and rules of society are called
A.anomic suicides.
B.egoistic suicides.
C.imitative suicides.
D.altruistic suicides.


35. The following is most closely related to which explanation of suicide? A young man whose father and uncle committed suicide at about his age also commits suicide.
A.psychodynamic
B.sociocultural
C.biological
D.immediate trigger


36. What is the critical way in which the death seeker primarily differs from other categories, according to Shneidman?
A.They speed along a death sure to occur naturally.
B.They are ambivalent about their death.
C.They intend to end their lives with their action.
D.They believe that death will not end their existence.


37. About how many suicides are committed annually in the United States?
A.10,000
B.30,000
C.120,000
D.700,000


38. A society that loses its basic family and religious core values, experiences large-scale immigration of people with very different values, and fails to provide meaning for the life of its people is in danger of an increase is what Durkheim calls
A.egoistic suicide.
B.altruistic suicide.
C.anomic suicide.
D.intragroup suicide.


39. Based on studies of suicide in children, the following case would be the most surprising (inconsistent with research results):
A.a child who had previously run away and tried to take an overdose.
B.a child who had experienced family stress-loss of a loved one, parental unemployment, abuse.
C.a child who did not appear to be depressed or to be acting out.
D.a child who was especially withdrawn and lonely.


40. What has been claimed to be a reason the suicide rate among elderly Native Americans is low?
A.religious fervor
B.overcoming the rage of youth
C.the value the culture places on the elderly
D.this group overall has a very low suicide rate compared to whites


41. About what percentage of suicidal people who contact a suicide crisis hotline later commit suicide?
A.2%
B.10%
C.30%
D.50%


42. Juan is a loner and an atheist. He does what he wants. He feels life isn't worth living and kills himself. According to Durkheim, he would be classified as an
A.anomic suicide.
B.egoistic suicide.
C.imitative suicide.
D.altruistic suicide.


43. A suicide note cites ill health and loneliness as the reason for the suicide. The writer is most likely
A.younger than 40.
B.40 to 49 years old.
C.50 to 59 years old.
D.over 60 years of age.


44. What is the cause of death in the majority of male suicides?
A.hanging
B.car accidents
C.drug overdose
D.use of firearms


45. Daniel has received a diagnosis of terminal cancer. He organizes his financial and personal affairs, tells his wife and children good-bye, and takes an overdose of sleeping pills to avoid a prolonged, painful death. According to Shneidman, Daniel would be classified as a
A.death darer.
B.death seeker.
C.death ignorer.
D.death initiator.


46. Carlos died by intentionally stepping in front of a bullet that was intended for another young man, for whom Carlos, as head of a platoon of soldiers in the Persian Gulf War, was responsible. Durkheim would call this an example of
A.anomic suicide.
B.egoistic suicide.
C.imitative suicide.
D.altruistic suicide.


47. Which of Shneidman's categories do most people generally believe that the majority of children who commit suicide belong in?
A.death darers
B.death seekers
C.death ignorers
D.death initiators


48. At a suicide prevention center, you hear the following from the counselor. Which one of the goals and techniques does it best represent? "Who can you think of who might be able to come over and stay with you for a few hours?"
A.assessing suicide potential
B.understanding and clarifying the problem
C.establishing a positive relationship
D.assessing and mobilizing the caller's resources


49. Which of the following is most likely to be associated with suicide risk?
A.being Irish versus being American
B.being married versus being divorced
C.being a woman versus being a man
D.being an atheist versus being devout


50. According to Shneidman, people who are ambivalent about their intent to die and whose actions leading to death do not guarantee death (e.g., swimming in shark-infested waters) are called
A.death darers.
B.death seekers.
C.death ignorers.
D.death initiators.


51. Who of the following has two positive risk factors for suicide?
A.a devout woman
B.a married man
C.a divorced woman
D.an atheist man


52. The following is most closely related to which explanation of suicide? A young woman attempted to kill herself as punishment for her self-centered, sinful behavior, when in fact it was her recently deceased father who had these characteristics.
A.psychodynamic
B.sociocultural
C.biological
D.immediate trigger


53. At a suicide prevention center, you hear the following from the counselor. Which one of the goals and techniques does it best represent? "Hello. I am interested in you as a person and am going to stay on the phone with you as long as you want-all night, maybe."
A.formulating a plan
B.assessing suicide potential
C.understanding and clarifying the problem
D.establishing a positive relationship


54. Biological researchers have found a link between suicide and
A.high levels of serotonin.
B.high levels of serotonin dopamine.
C.high levels of 5-hydroxyindoleactic acid.
D.a reduced number of imipramine receptor sites.


55. Suicide prevention centers
A.are run on the AA model, using suicide survivors.
B.are hospitals for those who have attempted suicide.
C.deliver services over the phone using paraprofessionals.
D.are declining in number in the United States


56. What kind of theory is Durkheim's theory of suicide?
A.cognitive
B.biological
C.sociocultural
D.psychodynamic


57. Ernest Hemingway was a physically strong, proud man who developed grave concerns about his failing body. Depressed about his progressive illness, he intentionally ended his life. Edwin Shneidman would term Hemingway a
A.death darer.
B.death seeker.
C.death ignorer.
D.death initiator.


58. Which is true about alcohol use and suicide?
A.Most people who attempt suicide drink alcohol just before the act.
B.About one-fourth of people who commit suicide are legally drunk.
C.Alcohol impairs judgment and lowers inhibitions.
D.All of the above.


59. What is the critical way in which death initiators primarily differ from other categories, according to Shneidman?
A.They employ more lethal means.
B.They intend to end their lives with their action.
C.They believe that death will not end their existence.
D.They believe they are merely speeding up an ongoing process.


60. The most helpful explanation for suicide, particularly regarding the general background factors and triggers of suicides, comes from the __________ perspective.
A.psychodynamic
B.behavioral
C.cognitive
D.sociocultural


61. Adolescent suicides differ from suicides at other age levels in all of the following ways except that
A.in addition to depression, many also experience anger and impulsiveness.
B.many experience significant loss before the suicide.
C.suicides may be triggered by more immediate stress, especially at school.
D.adolescents may be more suggestible and eager to imitate others.


62. The age group least likely to commit suicide in the United States is
A.children.
B.adolescents.
C.young adults.
D.the elderly.


63. What is a parasuicide?
A.a failed attempt to commit suicide
B.a murder followed by a successful suicide
C.a successfully committed suicide on the first try
D.a successfully committed suicide after many tries


64. The finding that more than 90% of adolescents who attempt suicide know someone else who has attempted it provides a case for what process in suicidal actions?
A.modeling
B.reinforcement
C.unconscious conflicts
D.maladaptive thinking


65. The following is an example of what Shneidman refers to as a ______________. Bobby plays chicken by aiming his car at a bridge abutment, then veering off at the last second.
A.death seeker
B.death initiator
C.death ignorer
D.death darer


66. According to Edwin Shneidman, people who commit suicide with clarity and commitment, yet who believe that they are simply facilitating a process that is already under way, are called
A.death darers.
B.death seekers.
C.death ignorers.
D.death initiators.


67. At a suicide prevention center, you hear the following from the counselor. Which one of the goals and techniques does it best represent? "Have you ever tried to commit suicide in the past? [If yes] How did you try to do it?"
A.formulating a plan
B.assessing suicide potential
C.establishing a positive relationship
D.assessing and mobilizing the caller's resources


68. The following is most closely related to which explanation of suicide? A grandfather whose wife is no longer living, who lives in a nursing home, who retired 30 years ago, and who rarely sees his children or participates in community activities kills himself.
A.psychodynamic
B.sociocultural
C.biological
D.immediate trigger


69. Which one of the following is the most likely reason for the relationship between alcohol use and suicide?
A.There is a chemical in alcohol that triggers a suicide response in the brain.
B.Alcohol is less well metabolized by those who are depressed.
C.Alcohol lows inhibitions and impairs judgment.
D.Pound for pound, women get drunk on less alcohol than men.


70. According to Durkheim, suicides by people who give up their lives so that another person they love may live would be classified as
A.anomic suicides.
B.egoistic suicides.
C.imitative suicides.
D.altruistic suicides.


71. During the past 30 years the emphasis has shifted from suicide treatment to _______.

Answer:


72. When people feel that their present circumstances, problems, and negative moods will not change, and this pessimistic belief contributes to suicide, the belief is called a sense of _______.

Answer:


73. In both the United States and Canada, ____________________ is the ethnic group with the highest suicide rate.

Answer:


74. According to Shneidman, people who have a clear intention of ending their lives at the time they attempt suicide, and who are sufficiently clear-minded and committed to performing the act, are called _______.

Answer:


75. Role conflict is a factor most commonly involved in the suicide of _______.

Answer:


76. According to Shneidman, individuals who play an indirect, covert, partial, or unconscious role in their own deaths may belong to the category called _______ .

Answer:


77. Dr. Alberto focuses on social relationships and connections with other people in understanding the suicide of an individual. Dr. Alberto seems to accept a _______ theoretical position.

Answer:


78. A person who commits suicide but shows ambivalence in the act would be classified as a _______, according to Shneidman.

Answer:


79. Since 1990, the suicide rate for adolescents in the United States has been _______.

Answer:


80. Darlene starves to death because she gives her meager food to her little sister. Durkheim would classify Darlene as an _______ suicide.

Answer:


81. Suicide prevention centers are often staffed by counselors called _______, who have no previous training but are under the supervision of a mental health professional.

Answer:


82. Durkheim defined _______ suicides as those committed by people who are not concerned with the norms or rules of society and who are not integrated into the social fabric.

Answer:


83. The age group most at risk for committing suicide in the United States is __________.

Answer:


84. The mediating factor between serotonin deficiency and suicide is thought to be _______ tendencies, which have been linked to low levels of serotonin, rather than to depression.

Answer:


85. According to Durkheim, a person who commits suicide because his or her social environment fails to provide stable structures to support and give meaning to life has committed _______ suicide.

Answer:



This is the end of the test. When you have completed all the questions and reviewed your answers, press the button below to grade the test.