1. The chief difference between mood disorders and normal mood fluctuation is
A.the particular medication used to treat the problem.
B.the cause of the problem.
C.the intensity and duration of the problem.
D.the demographic characteristics of the person.


2. What would be the most appropriate diagnosis for a person who experienced a major depressive episode, without having any history of mania, and is either immobile or excessively active?
A.recurrent depression
B.seasonal depression
C.catatonic depression
D.melancholic depression


3. A person displaying sadness, lack of energy, headaches, and feelings of low self-worth is showing all of the following symptoms except ________ symptoms.
A.emotional
B.motivational
C.behavioral
D.cognitive


4. Jamal is experiencing a major depressive episode that appears to have begun three weeks ago. He is miserable and suffers from at least five symptoms of depression. No unusually stressful events have occurred in the past year. Based on these data, the diagnosis would be
A.postpartum depression.
B.reactive depression.
C.exogenous depression.
D.endogenous depression.


5. The most effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder has been shown to be
A.tricyclics.
B.light therapy.
C.a melatonin pill.
D.monoamine oxidase inhibitors.


6. In the United States, the highest depression rate is found in
A.divorced people.
B.married people.
C.widowed people.
D.never-married people.


7. Dana is depressed and has been for a while. He, his twin brother, his mother, and his father all participate in family pedigree study. Identify the proband(s) in this study.
A.Dana
B.Dana's twin
C.both parents
D.both Dana and his twin


8. Family pedigree and twin studies have been used to look for a predisposition for unipolar depression within families. Which theoretical framework encompasses these studies?
A.humanist
B.biological
C.behavioral
D.psychodynamic


9. A group of naive dogs quickly learns to avoid a shock by jumping over a barrier when a light dims. A second group that spent the previous day receiving inescapable shocks does not learn in this situation. This experimental procedures demonstrates
A.depression.
B.escape learning.
C.learned helplessness.
D.approach-avoidance failure.


10. What is the current incidence of severe unipolar depression in the United States?
A.1-5% per year
B.5-10% per year
C.8-15% per year
D.20-23% per year


11. According to Seligman's theory, who of the following would be most likely to develop learned helplessness?
A.someone who had experienced no uncontrollable negative events, then experienced a controllable negative event
B.someone who had experienced uncontrollable negative events and then a controllable negative event
C.someone who had experienced controllable negative events, and then another controllable negative event
D.both a and c


12. The key emotions in mood disorders are
A.sadness and euphoria.
B.helplessness and hopelessness.
C.cyclothymia and dysthymia.
D.self-denial and self-aggrandizement.


13. According to Freudian theory, depression results in part from
A.learned helplessness.
B.irrational expectations.
C.regression to the oral stage.
D.learned anxiety turned inward.


14. Which of the following risk percentage patterns would best support the influence of genetic factors in explaining bipolar disorder? ________ in the general population; _________ among close relatives of people with bipolar disorder; _________ among identical twins of people with bipolar disorder
A.10%, 10%, 10%
B.40%, 10%, 1%
C.40%, 40%, 40%
D.1%, 10%, 40%


15. One who looks at the influence of race, living conditions, marital status, and roles on the development of depression would most likely represent which theoretical orientation?
A.behavioral
B.cognitive
C.sociocultural
D.psychoanalytical


16. The chief difference between learned helplessness created in laboratory settings and real-life depression is that
A.laboratory depression is more likely to be accompanied by anxiety.
B.laboratory depression is less easily treated.
C.real-life depression does not have a helplessness component,
D.lab animals do not show social withdrawal and passivity,


17. Although initially thought to be due to an excessive amount of a particular neurotransmitter, mania has been found to be due to low levels of this neurotransmitter. Which neurotransmitter is this?
A.dopamine
B.serotonin
C.acetylcholine
D.norepinephrine


18. Which theoretical orientation would this research finding support? Monkeys separated from their mothers at birth show signs of depression.
A.behavioral
B.biochemical
C.cognitive
D.psychoanalytic


19. Researchers have found that the sleep cycle in depressed people is
A.reversed.
B.extended.
C.devoid of REM sleep.
D.missing several steps.


20. Milder forms of bipolar disorders are known as ___________ disorders
A.hypomanic-depressive
B.dysthymic
C.cyclothymic
D.manic-depressive


21. All of the following are types of major depressive disorders except
A.recurrent.
B.seasonal.
C.melancholic.
D.posttraumatic.


22. To receive a diagnosis of dysthymic disorder, an individual must have experienced symptoms for at least
A.two weeks.
B.two months.
C.one year.
D.two years.


23. Depression occurs either when a loved one is lost or when a person experiences imagined or symbolic loss. This explanation for the onset of depression is proposed by
A.humanist theorists.
B.cognitive theorists.
C.behavioral theorists.
D.psychodynamic theorists.


24. Since the birth of her son, Maria has experienced a period of sadness that interferes with her ability to take care of him. She has never felt this way before, but this has been going on for several weeks. With what type of major depression would she most likely be diagnosed?
A.seasonal
B.catatonic
C.postpartum
D.melancholic


25. Which of the following would be a physical symptom of depression?
A.sleeping poorly
B.lack of desire to go to work
C.decreased level of physical activity
D.experiences of sadness and dejection


26. What type of clinician would be most likely to say this? "What are some things you enjoy doing, and how often do you do them?"
A.psychoanalyst
B.behaviorist
C.cognitive clinician
D.sociocultural clinician


27. People who talk rapidly, dress flamboyantly, and get involved in dangerous activities are showing ________ symptoms of mania.
A.behavioral
B.motivational
C.cognitive
D.emotional


28. Cognitive theorists explain depression in terms of a person's
A.interpretation of negative events.
B.symbolic losses.
C.decrease in positive activities.
D.ethnic background.


29. What phenomenon are the artifact, quality-of-life, and self-blame theories used to explain?
A.Twice as many women as men are diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
B.Twice as many men as women are diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
C.Twice as many men as women are diagnosed with unipolar depression.
D.Twice as many women as men are diagnosed with unipolar depression.


30. A woman who was frequently but unpredictably beaten by her husband was finally taken to a shelter by the police. While there she did not take advantage of educational and job training opportunities. How would cognitive theorists explain her behavior?
A.automatic negative thoughts
B.faulty cognitive triad
C.learned helplessness
D.arbitrary attribution


31. The most common form of mood disorder is
A.unipolar depression.
B.bipolar disorder.
C.mania.
D.manic-depression.


32. Cognitive theorists and psychoanalysts have in common an emphasis on
A.the components of the cognitive triad.
B.object relations theory as it relates to grief reactions.
C.methodologies for investigating mood disorders.
D.how early experiences shape one's risk for depression.


33. An overabundance of a neurotransmitter was logically thought to be related to manic episodes in bipolar disorders, but this was not substantiated by research. Which neurotransmitter was this?
A.dopamine
B.serotonin
C.acetylcholine
D.norepinephrine


34. All the pleasure has gone out of life for Trevor. Things he used to find fun and exciting no longer give him any joy. He finds he wakes up early in the morning and has no appetite. This has been going on for several weeks. What type of major depression would he most likely be diagnosed with?
A.seasonal
B.catatonic
C.recurrent
D.melancholic


35. A depressed person who is confused, unable to remember things, and unable to solve problems is suffering from ________ symptoms.
A.emotional
B.cognitive
C.motivational
D.behavioral


36. Which theoretical orientation would this research finding support? People with unipolar depression have higher levels of cortisol.
A.behavioral
B.biochemical
C.psychoanalytic
D.sociocultural


37. Which theoretical orientation would this research finding support? There is a significant relationship between positive life events and feelings of life satisfaction and happiness.
A.behavioral
B.biochemical
C.cognitive
D.psychoanalytic


38. Which theoretical orientation would this research finding support? Westerners experience more psychological symptoms of depression, while non-Westerners experience more physical symptoms of depression.
A.biochemical
B.cognitive
C.psychoanalytic
D.sociocultural


39. Family pedigree and twin studies have been used to look for a genetic predisposition for unipolar depression. These studies have found
A.a lower rate of unipolar depression among children of parents with this disorder.
B.a higher than expected rate of depression among the families of depressed patients.
C.high rates of unipolar depression among dizygotic twins but not among monozygotic twins.
D.no compelling evidence for depression to be found in relatives of a depressed individual.


40. The experience of a lack of desire to engage in sexual activity with one's spouse would be considered a(n) __________ symptom of depression.
A.cognitive
B.emotional
C.behavioral
D.motivational


41. If we ultimately find that people with unipolar depression have certain biochemical characteristics, certain cognitive characteristics, and certain life stressors, then we will have evidence
A.that a single factor causes depression.
B.that different factors cause depression in different people.
C.that an interaction between factors causes depression.
D.that different factors are related to the cause, course, and treatment of depression.


42. Sohila has been deteriorating for more than a year. She is always tired (she does not sleep), she is losing weight (she eats poorly), she is sad, feels terrible, and feels like it will never get any better. When asked, it is clear that nothing in particular has happened. Based on these data, the diagnosis would be
A.manic depression.
B.reactive depression.
C.exogenous depression.
D.endogenous depression.


43. Bipolar disorders have recently been linked to
A.GABA depletion.
B.excessive serotonin.
C.improper sodium transport.
D.excessive neuronal lithium.


44. An older person retires and begins experiencing health problems. Consequently, the person loses contact with old friends and becomes unpleasant to be around. A behaviorist would explain the resulting depression in terms of
A.learned helplessness.
B.object relations loss.
C.sociocultural changes.
D.loss of positive social rewards.


45. Which theoretical orientation would this research finding support? Depressed people show an internal/global/stable pattern of attribution on a questionnaire.
A.behavioral
B.sociocultural
C.cognitive
D.psychoanalytic


46. The hormone that appears involved in seasonal affective disorder is
A.serotonin.
B.dopamine.
C.melatonin.
D.norepinephrine.


47. To receive a diagnosis of major depressive episode, catatonic, the individual must display
A.repeated episodes.
B.fluctuation in mood during the year.
C.motor immobility or excessive activity.
D.onset within four weeks of giving birth.


48. Which of the following would be a motivational symptom of depression?
A.lack of desire to eat
B.a negative view of oneself
C.experiences of sadness and anger
D.staying in bed for hours during the day


49. In general, object relations theorists follow which theoretical perspective?
A.cognitive
B.humanistic
C.existential
D.psychoanalytic


50. Which of the following concepts is not associated with the psychoanalytic explanation for depression?
A.symbolic or imagined loss
B.learned helplessness
C.fixation at the oral stage
D.introjection


51. A milder pattern of mood swings that does not reach the severity of bipolar disorder but does include brief depressive and manic episodes is called
A.dysthymia
B.anhedonia
C.cyclothymia
D.anxiety disorder


52. Recent research using genetic linkage studies has looked for possible patterns of inheritance of bipolar disorders. The results suggest that
A.there does not appear to be a genetic component in the development of bipolar disorders.
B.there may be several different genes that establish a predisposition to develop bipolar disorders.
C.the close relatives of people with bipolar disorders have an 80% chance of having one of these disorders.
D.careful studies in other countries suggest that environmental factors are of far greater importance than genetic factors in the development of bipolar disorders.


53. What type of clinician would be most likely to say this? "In what circumstances do you feel hopeless?"
A.psychoanalyst
B.behaviorist
C.cognitive clinician
D.sociocultural clinician


54. Biochemical explanations for bipolar disorder center on all of the following except
A.neurotransmitter activity.
B.sodium ion activity.
C.hormonal functioning.
D.genetic factors.


55. Which of the following is the least common form of a mood disorder?
A.full manic and full depressive episodes
B.swinging from manic to depressive symptoms on the same day
C.full manic episodes with no depressive episodes
D.full depressive episodes with no manic episodes


56. Darius thinks that his poor performance in math was due to a bad teacher, but he believes that he is good in language-based subjects. He is sure that he will do better next year. This is an example of _______ attribution.
A.internal, global, and stable
B.external, global, and stable
C.internal, specific, and stable
D.external, specific, and unstable


57. The experience of dizziness and general unspecified pain would be considered __________ symptoms of depression.
A.physical
B.emotional
C.behavioral
D.motivational


58. A person who becomes depressed because of several recent tragic events would be experiencing ________ depression
A.endogenous
B.exogenous
C.experiential
D.egocentric


59. The difference between bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder is
A.the number of depressive and manic episodes.
B.the severity of the manic episodes.
C.the number of depressive episodes.
D.the seasonal variation in the episodes.


60. If one wanted to develop treatments in the areas that appear at this time to precede and predict depression best, one would concentrate on
A.early child rearing and current patterns of reward.
B.current patterns of reward and medication.
C.medication and thought patterns.
D.thought patterns and living conditions.


61. The person associated with developing a cognitive theory of depression based on negative and maladaptive thinking was
A.Beck.
B.Freud.
C.Seligman.
D.Lewinsohn.


62. Children who were separated from their mothers at an early age were more likely than other children to experience weepiness, passivity, and withdrawal. This reaction, seen in children who are separated from their mothers up to the age of 6, has been called _______.
A.dysthymia
B.detachment
C.insecure attachment
D.anaclitic depression


63. What type of clinician would be most likely to say this? "Tell me about your different life responsibilities and how valuable you feel each is."
A.psychoanalyst
B.behaviorist
C.cognitive clinician
D.sociocultural clinician


64. Which of the following would provide the best evidence for the cognitive explanation for depression?
A.a finding that people show negative thoughts before they became depressed
B.a finding that people show negative thoughts only after they become depressed
C.a finding that biochemical imbalances lead to both depression and negative thoughts
D.a finding that social rewards are not related to happiness


65. Which of the following people is showing introjection?
A.a parent who raises the child to be excessively dependent
B.a spouse who relates in unsafe and insecure ways
C.a person who directs feelings of grief for a lost loved one toward himself
D.a student who feels her parents love her only when she achieves at a high level


66. The strongest evidence for the cause of bipolar disorders best supports which theoretical perspective?
A.cognitive
B.biological
C.behavioral
D.humanistic


67. The dean of academic affairs visits a professor's class as part of a tenure review. At the conclusion of the lecture, the dean exits hurriedly, without saying a word to the professor. The professor, who is prone to depression, concludes, "The dean hated my class so much he was too embarrassed to speak to me." This is an example of a(n)
A.overgeneralization.
B.arbitrary inference.
C.selective abstraction.
D.magnification and minimization.


68. The person associated with the learned helplessness theory of depression is
A.Beck.
B.Freud.
C.Seligman.
D.Lewinsohn.


69. If a biochemical imbalance were the cause of a person's depression, the latest research would lead us to expect to find that person to have
A.an abnormality in the activity of certain neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and norephinephrine.
B.especially high levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and acetylcholine, and their metabolites.
C.particularly low levels of the neurotransmitters cortisol and melatonin, as measured by their metabolites.
D.all of the above.


70. To receive a diagnosis of major depressive episode, melancholic, the individual must display
A.repeated episodes.
B.fluctuation in mood during the year.
C.motor immobility or excessive activity.
D.no emotional response to pleasurable events.


71. "Women and men are equally likely to experience depression, but gender differences in the rate of diagnosing this disorder arise because clinicians often fail to detect this disorder in men." This is the _______.

Answer:


72. The catecholamine theory suggests that unipolar depression is a result of deficiencies in the activity level of the neurotransmitter _______ in the brain.

Answer:


73. The indoleamine theory suggests that unipolar depression is a result of deficiencies in the activity level of the neurotransmitter _______ in the brain.

Answer:


74. A state in which one feels low and life seems bleak with overwhelming challenges is called __________.

Answer:


75. Some people exhibit increased appetite, fatigue, and oversleeping during the ctualwinter. This condition is called _______.

Answer:


76. Depressed people often move less often and more slowly. This is a(n) _______ symptom.

Answer:


77. Harlow's monkey studies have been used to support the _______ explanation of depression.

Answer:


78. Dysthymia is a milder form of depression that is distinguished from major depression. When dysthymia leads to a major episode, the sequence is called _______.

Answer:


79. According to Beck, arbitrary inferences, selective abstractions, overgeneralization, and magnification are examples of _______ that lead to negativity.

Answer:


80. Lewinsohn has developed a theory that depression results from a progressive decrease in the number of _______ that a person receives over a long period of time.

Answer:


81. "I'm going out to convince the drug dealers of the errors of their ways. I'm going to start right now. Then I'll write a play about my work and put it on Broadway. But first, I need to go home and cook a gourmet meal." This patient is probably suffering from a _______ episode.

Answer:


82. To maintain his underlying assumption of a relationship between loss and depression, Freud invoked the concept of _______, in which a person unconsciously interprets negative experiences as the loss of a loved one.

Answer:


83. People become depressed when they believe that they have no control over the events in their lives and that they cannot change this condition. This is known as the _______ view of depression.

Answer:


84. Aaron Beck's work led him to believe that _______ lies at the heart of unipolar depression.

Answer:


85. The theorist responsible for focusing attention on the negative aspects of thinking as an explanation of depression is _______.

Answer:



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