1. Which of the following is true about the incidence of panic disorder?
A.It occurs most often late in life.
B.There are large ethnic and racial differences in the incidence of panic disorder.
C.More women than men experience panic disorder.
D.Only about 10% of those with panic disorder receive treatment.


2. Recent studies have found evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorders often respond to
A.neuroleptic drugs.
B.antipsychotic drugs.
C.anticonvulsant drugs.
D.antidepressant drugs.


3. Recent studies showed that
A.antidepressant medication resulted in reduction in activity in the caudate nuclei.
B.exposure and response prevention resulted in reduction in activity in the caudate nuclei.
C.both a and b.
D.neither a nor b.


4. If the therapist gets the client to repeatedly focus on his or her obsessive thoughts, they will gradually go away. The therapy based on this idea is called
A.operant extinction.
B.habituation training.
C.covert-response prevention.
D.the exposure and response prevention procedure.


5. Jethro hates his mother-in-law and can't seem to stop imagining her lying in a pool of blood, in pieces. These thoughts are interfering with his daily life. He is exhibiting
A.a compulsion.
B.obsessive ideas.
C.obsessive doubts.
D.obsessive images.


6. Maxine started worrying about cleanliness when her first child was born. That worry has intensified and she cannot stop thinking that germs lurk everywhere. She is exhibiting a(n)
A.compulsion.
B.obsessive idea.
C.obsessive doubt.
D.obsessive image.


7. Jose and Ted both get racing hearts once in a while. When it happens to Ted, he panics and thinks he is going to die. Gradually he has developed these panic attacks if he even thinks that his heart is beating strongly. When Jose's heart starts beating strongly, he looks to his current activity to understand what is producing the sensations (hard work). Ted apparently has a high degree of
A.fear,
B.anxiety,
C.obsessive imagery,
D.anxiety sensitivity,


8. Which of the following brain areas have been implicated in obsessive-compulsive symptoms?
A.the frontal lobes and the thalamus
B.the thalamus and the hypothalamus
C.the motor cortex and the caudate nuclei
D.the orbital cortex and the caudate nuclei


9. One distinction that DSM-IV makes between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder is based on
A.how intense the anxiety-linked symptoms are.
B.what the cause of the anxiety-linked symptoms was.
C.how soon after the trauma the anxiety symptoms began.
D.what sort of treatment is contemplated for the anxiety-linked symptoms.


10. The proportion of panic-attack sufferers who reach full, or nearly full, recovery because of antidepressant drugs is about
A.40%.
B.60%.
C.80%.
D.almost 100%.


11. An obsessive-compulsive person who was told that everyone was required to wear shoes at all times in the house and not to vacuum for a week, would be experiencing what therapy procedures?
A.family therapy
B.exposure and response prevention
C.reinforcement for compulsive behavior
D.free association


12. The neurotransmitter implicated in the control of obsessive-compulsive disorder is
A.GABA.
B.serotonin.
C.norepinephrine.
D.acetylcholine.


13. Jose and Ted both get racing hearts once in a while. When it happens to Ted, he panics and thinks he is going to die. Gradually he has developed these panic attacks if he even thinks that his heart is beating strongly. When Jose's heart starts beating strongly, he looks to his current activity to understand what is producing the sensations (hard work). This description is consistent with a(n) _____________interpretation of the origin of panic attacks.
A.cognitive
B.biological
C.behavioral
D.psychodynamic


14. One of the few effective long-term, nonpharmacological treatments for panic attacks involves teaching patients that their physical sensations are harmless. This approach comes from the __________ viewpoint.
A.cognitive
B.behavioral
C.humanistic
D.psychodynamic


15. The phobia most often associated with panic disorder is
A.claustrophobia.
B.acrophobia.
C.agoraphobia.
D.metrophobia.


16. Which of the following is the best example of "emotional anesthesia"?
A.feeling detached or estranged from others and loss of interest in activities
B.feelings of extreme guilt for surviving the traumatic event
C.reliving the event through day dreams and night dreams
D.excessive talking about the event in inappropriate settings


17. A neurologist who was working with a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder would be suspicious of damage to what region of the brain?
A.hypothalamus
B.caudate nuclei
C.cerebral cortex
D.temporal lobe


18. Someone who can tell you exactly how many ceiling tiles there are in each classroom and how many people's names were in the credits of the movie he watched last night is exhibiting a
A.checking compulsion.
B.counting compulsion.
C.symmetry compulsion.
D.verbal ritual.


19. How are obsessions and compulsions related?
A.Compulsions are a way to prevent obsessions from occurring.
B.Obsessions generally lead to violent or immoral compulsions.
C.Compulsions help people control their obsessions.
D.Obsessions are not related to compulsions.


20. What proportion of women are the victims of rape at some point during their lives?
A.1%
B.5%
C.20%
D.50%


21. One who is anxious unless her books are perfectly lined up on her desk and who must eat the food on her plate in a balanced order is exhibiting a
A.checking compulsion.
B.counting compulsion.
C.symmetry compulsion.
D.cleaning compulsion.


22. Panic attacks are usually treated with cognitive therapy and/or
A.drug therapy.
B.habituation training.
C.classical conditioning.
D.response prevention therapy.


23. According to cognitive theorists, compulsive acts serve to _________ obsessive thoughts.
A.reinforce
B.increase
C.neutralize
D.clarify


24. The area of the brain that may act as a filter, protecting consciousness from intrusive thoughts, is the
A.thalamus.
B.orbital region.
C.cerebral cortex.
D.caudate nucleus.


25. Salina was terrified during the San Francisco earthquake of 1989 (who wouldn't be!). For a couple of weeks after, she did not sleep well or feel comfortable inside a building. However, gradually the fears diminished, and they disappeared within a month. Her reaction to the earthquake was
A.a panic attack.
B.a phobic reaction.
C.an acute stress disorder.
D.a posttraumatic stress disorder.


26. A professor who puts on rubber gloves before grading papers and religiously avoids any contact with the hands of students is exhibiting a(n)
A.cleaning compulsion.
B.checking compulsion.
C.order compulsion.
D.touching compulsion.


27. Behavior therapy as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder
A.changes behavior in the clinic, but doesn't carry over to home and the workplace.
B.works in only about 25% of those who are treated with it.
C.does not work as well for those who have obsessions but no compulsions.
D.all of the above.


28. What type of drug is Alprazolam (Xanax)?
A.antipsychotic
B.antidepressant
C.benzodiazepine
D.major tranquilizer


29. Which of the following does not characterize stress disorders?
A.recurring memories, dreams, or nightmares about the event
B.a compulsive need to engage in activities that remind one of the event
C.reduced responsiveness to the world around one
D.signs of increased arousal, such as poor sleep and exaggerated startle reactions


30. Which of the following thoughts reflects the most common theme found in obsessions?
A.If I touch that doorknob, I will be dirty and contaminated.
B.I must make sure the brochures are folded exactly evenly.
C.I can hardly stop myself from yelling sexual obscenities in class.
D.I hope that person dies a long, slow death.


31. Psychoanalytic theory views obsessive-compulsive behavior as resulting from a struggle between the
A.id and the superego.
B.id and the ego defense mechanisms.
C.superego and ego defense mechanisms.
D.ego ideal and the ego defense mechanisms.


32. Behaviorists believe that compulsive behavior
A.is reinforced because engaging in it reduces anxiety.
B.originally is associated with an increase in anxiety.
C.is logically rather than randomly connected to fearful situations.
D.is exhibited by everyone.


33. A person with a panic disorder who is encouraged to go out, and is praised for efforts to do so, is probably receiving
A.exposure therapy.
B.cognitive therapy.
C.psychodynamic therapy.
D.medical therapy.


34. If a client were instructed to tape-record obsessive thoughts and listen to them for two hours each day, the client would be experiencing what therapy technique?
A.response prevention
B.habituation training
C.free association
D.neutralization


35. Recently, in addition to antidepressants, Alprazolam (Xanax) has been found to be successful in treating
A.phobias.
B.panic disorders.
C.generalized anxiety disorders.
D.obsessive-compulsive disorders.


36. Cognitive theorists have found that people who develop obsessive-compulsive disorder also
A.have a lower rate of depression.
B.have lower standards of conduct and morality.
C.believe it is impossible and undesirable to have control over everything.
D.believe their thoughts are capable of causing harm to themselves or others.


37. "Everyone has intrusive and unwanted thoughts. Most people ignore them. But some people blame themselves and expect terrible consequences, so they act in ways they hope will neutralize the thoughts." The type of theorist most likely to agree with the quote would be a
A.psychodynamic theorist.
B.behaviorist.
C.cognitive theorist.
D.biologist.


38. When was acute stress disorder as a result of combat recognized?
A.after World War I
B.after World War II
C.after the Vietnam War
D.after the American Civil War


39. Which of the following is true about drug and cognitive treatments for panic disorder?
A.Drug treatments are significantly more effective, especially early in the disorder.
B.Cognitive treatment is more effective over time, even if the person continues to take medication.
C.Both drug treatments and cognitive treatments are effective.
D.Neither drug treatments nor cognitive treatments show much promise.


40. According to cognitive theorists, people experiencing anxiety disorder
A.are oblivious to body sensations.
B.are unable to assess bodily sensations accurately.
C.interpret bodily sensations as abnormally pleasant.
D.all of the above.


41. You notice someone who is sweating, experiencing shortness of breath, choking, feeling dizzy, and is afraid of dying. If it is not a heart attack but in fact an anxiety disorder, it is probably a
A.panic attack.
B.phobia.
C.obsessive-compulsive response.
D.posttraumatic disorder.


42. The cognitive explanation for panic disorders is that people who have them
A.have relatives who are atypically anxious.
B.are prone to allergies and have immune deficiencies.
C.misinterpret bodily sensations.
D.experience more stress than average.


43. Current research suggests that those who experience the greatest degree of stress disorder
A.have abnormal levels of norepinephrine and cortisol.
B.are less anxious than the average person before the trauma.
C.were likely to be wealthy as children.
D.were not directly exposed to the trauma, but experienced it second-hand.


44. Sam can't leave for work without going back into his house and making sure that he has taken all his writing materials. He does this several times before he allows himself to start the car and drive to work. He is frequently late for work because he is so unsure about remembering everything. Sam is displaying
A.agoraphobia.
B.an obsession.
C.a checking compulsion.
D.nonpathological caution.


45. Educating survivors about symptoms they might develop in the aftermath of a huge disaster is relevant to
A.providing referrals.
B.teaching self-helping skills.
C.diffusing anxiety, anger, and frustration.
D.normalizing people's responses to the disaster.


46. Posttraumatic stress disorders
A.begin immediately after the stress occurs.
B.last between 1 and 3 weeks.
C.don't begin until years after the traumatic event.
D.none of the above.


47. Investigators in the 1960s discovered that panic attacks could be reduced or eliminated by the use of
A.neuroleptic drugs.
B.antipsychotic drugs.
C.antidepressant drugs.
D.anticonvulsant drugs.


48. A pattern of anxiety, insomnia, depression, anorexia, and flashbacks that persists for years after a horrible event is called
A.hysteria.
B.acute stress disorder.
C.generalized anxiety disorder.
D.posttraumatic stress disorder.


49. The yearly prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the United States is about
A.2%
B.5%
C.20%
D.41%


50. For an antidepressant to be effective against obsessive-compulsive disorder, it must
A.increase serotonin activity.
B.decrease serotonin activity.
C.increase norepinephrine activity.
D.decrease norepinephrine activity.


51. A psychodynamic theorist finds that a client is experiencing a battle between anxiety-provoking id impulses and anxiety-reducing ego defense mechanisms. She thinks that this usually unconscious conflict is being played out in an explicit and overt manner. She is sure this underlying conflict explains her client's
A.fugue state.
B.schizophrenia.
C.generalized anxiety disorder.
D.obsessive-compulsive disorder.


52. When one checks the stove 10 times to make sure it is turned off before leaving in the morning, one is exhibiting a(n)
A.obsession.
B.compulsion.
C.panic attack.
D.phobia.


53. Imagine you are a therapist who takes the cognitive point of view. What would be the point of using a biological challenge test in the treatment of panic attack?
A.To test for anxiety sensitivity to choose a drug to use.
B.To extinguish the physiological response that causes the panic attack.
C.To properly label the physiological responses that trigger the panic attack.
D.There is no point in a cognitive therapist eliciting the physiological responses associated with panic attacks.


54. Which of the following typifies posttraumatic stress disorder?
A.increased arousal, anxiety, and guilt
B.inability to remember the event that led to the stress
C.increased responsiveness and emotion right after the event
D.a tendency to want to go back to see the site of the stress


55. One of the drawbacks of exposure and response prevention as a therapy is that it:
A.has a more than 50% relapse rate.
B.is ineffective with clients with obsessions but no compulsions.
C.is ineffective with clients who have both obsessions and compulsions.
D.does not result in more improvement in obsessive-compulsive clients than do other cognitive-behavioral therapies.


56. Kelly was in a passenger plane that had engine trouble. She watched as all four engines quit, one at a time. Then the plane exploded and she was thrown free 5,000 feet in the air. It was a miracle that she survived, though severely injured, because she landed in a thick pine forest covered with 10 feet or more of snow. When she regained consciousness several weeks later, she had a stress reaction that lasted for years, and she could never fly again. The factor that probably contributed most to her extreme posttraumatic stress reaction was
A.her personality.
B.her social support.
C.the severity of the trauma.
D.the nature of her childhood experiences.


57. If a professor had the notion that there were germs lurking everywhere, on papers students handed in, on books checked out of the library, on the chalk left by the previous teacher, the professor would be experiencing
A.obsessive wishes.
B.obsessive ideas.
C.obsessive images.
D.obsessive doubts.


58. People who experience obsessions show
A.typical levels of worry about real problems.
B.thoughts that are intrusive and foreign to them.
C.thoughts that they can easily ignore and resist.
D.a lack of awareness that the thoughts are inappropriate.


59. A person who experiences unpredictable panic attacks combined with dysfunctional behavior and thoughts is probably experiencing
A.typical panic attacks.
B.panic disorder.
C.physiological damage.
D.a normal response to stress.


60. Which of the following is most true concerning the use of drugs to deal with posttraumatic stress disorder in combat veterans?
A.Antianxiety drugs are used.
B.Antidepressants are used.
C.Both antianxiety drugs and antidepressants are used.
D.Drugs are not usually employed against posttraumatic stress disorder in combat veterans.


61. Which of the following women is experiencing the most common form of victimization?
A.one who is raped
B.one who is physically abused by her husband
C.one who is shot by her boyfriend
D.one who is physically abused by her employer


62. One who is experiencing a panic disorder would most likely also be phobic about
A.high places.
B.closed-in places.
C.medical procedures.
D.leaving home.


63. Based on clinical observations, it is most likely that damage to the __________ might reduce or eliminate obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
A.hippocampus
B.hypothalamus
C.caudate nuclei
D.cerebral cortex


64. What principle is most likely involved in the difference in the reaction of the dentists who examined the teeth of the Branch Davidian casualties and the team of Ray and Louise Barnes, who are hired to clean up after deaths such as homicides and accidents?
A.habituation
B.social support
C.the severity of the trauma
D.There is no hint to an explanation.


65. If one rehashes the day's events, critiquing herself each step of the way, asking herself if she had done the proper thing, she would be experiencing
A.obsessive wishes.
B.obsessive impulses.
C.obsessive images.
D.obsessive doubts.


66. Antidepressants that are effective in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder serve to
A.increase levels of serotonin in the brain.
B.increase levels of norepinephrine.
C.increase the level of all brain neurotransmitters.
D.none of the above.


67. People who experience a positive event, get excited, breath harder, and have an increase in their heart rate, then interpret the symptoms as a heart attack, are experiencing what cognitive theorists call
A.biological challenge.
B.behavioral inhibition.
C.anxiety sensitivity.
D.exposure relapse.


68. Posttraumatic stress disorders
A.occur in adults and not children.
B.are more common in men than in women.
C.are most often triggered by academic trauma.
D.often occur with depression and substance abuse.


69. Religious rituals and superstitious behavior (such as not stepping on cracks) would be considered obsessive-compulsive behavior
A.when done to provide comfort and reduce tension.
B.when done more than once per day.
C.when they interfere with daily function and cause distress.
D.never.


70. A pattern of anxiety, insomnia, depression, anorexia, and flashbacks that persists for a month or so after a horrible event is called
A.hysteria.
B.acute stress disorder.
C.generalized anxiety disorder.
D.posttraumatic stress disorder.


71. Clinicians eventually have come to realize that many soldiers also experienced serious psychological symptoms after combat. The syndrome that can follow combat is called __________.

Answer:


72. Cognitive therapists train clients to label the sensation of the blood pounding in their veins as physical exertion. This is part of his therapy for treating __________.

Answer:


73. Reactions to trauma that happen almost immediately and gradually go away in a month or so are likely to be diagnosed as __________.

Answer:


74. If metabolic activity is any indication, the part of the brain involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder is the __________ and the __________.

Answer:


75. Make the obsessive client repeat his or her obsessive thoughts over and over and they will subside. This technique is called __________.

Answer:


76. Meyer's technique, which involves instructing clients not to perform their compulsive behavior, is called __________.

Answer:


77. The aspect of the response to or recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder or acute stress disorder that involves friends and family is __________.

Answer:


78. Suddenly and without warning, and without apparent cause, Melissa acted as if there were a cataclysmic emergency and she became paralyzed with fear. She probably had a(n) __________.

Answer:


79. A biological explanation for the stress disorders involves the activity of __________ in the locus ceruleus.

Answer:


80. The psychological disorder that the "rap group" was invented to treat is __________.

Answer:


81. Reliving an event that happened months ago, avoidance of things associated with that event, and a generally reduced responsiveness, are symptoms of __________.

Answer:


82. Repetitive and rigid activities that a person feels forced to perform are called __________.

Answer:


83. Repetitive thoughts, ideas, impulses, or mental images that seem to invade a person's consciousness, are __________.

Answer:


84. The mayor of Lockerbie, Scotland, still wakes up in a cold sweat thinking about a burning jetliner crashing into his town. This is an example of a __________.

Answer:


85. Janet rarely has a calm moment. If she leaves the house, she must go to each window at least three times to be sure it is locked. Each appliance receives four passes, and doors are examined at least 10 times. Every aspect of her life, at home and away, is affected by her behavior. Janet suffers from a __________.

Answer:



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