1. 2 The BEST definition of a double blind experiment is a study in which _____.
A.nobody knows what they are doing
B.neither the participants in the treatment group nor the control group knows which treatment is being given to which group
C.neither the experimenter nor the participants knows which treatment is being given to the participant nor to which group the participant has been assigned
D.two control groups (or placebo conditions) must be used

2. 1 Your text describes psychology as _____.
A.the observation or manipulation of human and animal behavior
B.the application of science to the practice of clinical, counseling, and industrial/organizational fields
C.the use of strict scientific methods to collect, analyze, and interpret information about behavior and mental processes
D.the empirical study of the interactions between mind and body

3. 1 According to Cozby, a(n) _____ is a carefully controlled scientific procedure in which the researcher isolates a single factor and examines the effect of that factor alone on a particular behavior.
A.case study
B.laboratory observation
D.evaluative survey

4. 1 If you wanted to carry out an action in a manner that would be hard for others to notice or observe, you would behave _____.

5. 1 Psychology is BEST defined as the _____.
A.science of conscious and unconscious forces on behavior
B.empirical study of the mind
C.scientific study of adaptive and maladaptive behaviors
D.scientific study of behavior and mental processes

6. 2 You are really interested in helping companies run more productively, and assisting employers in improving relationships between employees and their supervisors. Which of the following fields might you MOST want to consider pursuing to achieve your career goal?
A.social psychology
B.employee relations psychology
C.industrial/organizational psychology
D.business administration

7. 2 The six basic perspectives in psychology today are _____.
A.psychoanalytic, behavioristic, humanistic, cognitive, biological, evolutionary, and cultural
B.structuralist, functionalist, gestalt, behavioristic, psychoanalytic, and psychosocial
C.Freudian, Rogerian, Skinnerian, Watsonian, Maslowian, and Titchenerian
D.none of these options; there are no different perspectives, they have all blended into eclecticism

8. 1 The BEST definition of an independent variable is a _____.
A.measurable behavior that is exhibited by a participant and is affected by the dependent variable
B.variable that is controlled by the experimenter and is applied to the participant to determine its effect
C.variable that is kept constant during an experiment to prevent contamination of other variables
D.variable that cannot be controlled by anyone

9. 2 Salary and years of education are _____ correlated, and grade point average and the number of hours of television watched per day are _____ correlated.
A.not; positively
B.negatively; positively
C.positively; not
D.positively, negatively

10. 2 In a case study, a researcher is most likely to _____.
A.interview many research subjects who have a single problem or disorder
B.conduct an in-depth study of a single research subject
C.choose and investigate a single topic
D.each of the above is an example of a different type of case study

11. 1 The values and assumptions about life and patterns of behavior that develop as a response to social and environmental factors and are passed on from generation to generation is the definition of _____.

12. 1 Most psychologists today use the principles and techniques from different perspectives as they suit the situation at hand. This statement demonstrates the _____ approach to psychology.

13. 2 Timothy has been reluctant to ask or answer questions in a classroom because when he spoke in his second-grade class he was laughed at by his peers. This is a demonstration of which goal of psychology?
A.describing behavior
B.explaining behavior
C.predicting behavior
D.changing behavior

14. 2 In experiments, _____ variables are selected and manipulated by the experimenter.

15. 2 Which of the following is NOT an ethical concern of psychologists?
A.the safety and health of research animals
B.protecting client confidentiality
C.deception in research
D.subject bias

16. 2 Dr. Kristin makes up her responses to radio listeners, using mostly her own commonsense, beliefs, and values rather than scientific research. This practice is more like _____ than _____.
A.fraud; vice
B.pseudopsychology; psychology
C.illegal behavior; legal behavior
D.all of these options

17. 1 Your text defines behavior as _____.
A.actions and emotions experienced by both humans and animals
B.anything a person or animal does, feels, or thinks
C.observable actions following a specific stimulus or stimuli
D.observable and hidden actions displayed by both humans and animals

18. 1 Facts, statistics, and pieces of information are synonyms for the word _____.
D.all of these options

19. 2 If you were investigating the function of mental processes in adapting the individual to the environment, you would be working in the school of psychological thought called _____.
C.cognitive processing

20. 1 Attempts to explain behavior or personality differences using nonscientific or deliberately fraudulent methods are characteristic of all _____.
A.antisocial people

21. 1 The goals of psychology are to _____.
A.explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind
B.understand, compare, and analyze human behavior
C.improve psychological well-being in all individuals from conception to death
D.describe, explain, predict, and change behavior

22. 1 Experimenter bias refers to _____.
A.intentional subtle cues given by a researcher that lead a subject to guess what the correct response should be
B.the tendency of experimenters to influence the results of a study in the expected direction
C.the experimenter's belief that his or her study results are more accurate than any other study's results
D.the tendency of experimenters to unintentionally report their results in a manner which always supports their hypotheses

23. 3 Dr. Watson, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on objective, observable behavior rather than on the unconscious; Dr. Rogers, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on the importance of the inner, subjective self and stressed the positive side of human nature.
A.behaviorism; humanistic
B.cognitive; psychoanalytic
C.developmental; ethereal
D.conditional; unconditional

24. 2 The Taiwanese study that found that the number of electric appliances in a person's home was the best predictor of the use of contraceptives was used by your text's authors to illustrate which of the following facts?
A.a negative correlation is better than a positive correlation
B.a positive correlation is better than a negative correlation
C.correlation does not imply causation
D.causation does not imply correlation

25. 2 If you were investigating aggression in human beings using standardized scientific procedures, you would be employing _____.
A.an experimental process
B.research methodology
C.a correlational study
D.a combination of case studies and observations

26. 2 Moesha is great with computers; she also has expressed a strong interest in how the mind works to gather, organize, process, store, and retrieve information from the world. Moesha would probably be most interested in which field of psychology?
B.cognitive psychology
C.industrial/organizational psychology
D.comparative psychology

27. 2 Which of the following is the BEST example of a zero correlation?
A.the relationship between your personality and the position of various stars and planets on the day of your birth
B.the relationship between your height and your intelligence
C.the relationship between what you had for breakfast and what the student closest to you is wearing
D.all of these options

28. 2 If this causes that, then this is the _____ variable, and that is the _____ variable.
A.dependent; independent
B.independent; dependent
C.constant; dependent
D.constant; independent

29. 1 A population is BEST defined as _____.
A.the total of all possible cases from which a sample is selected
B.a group of people who all have something in common
C.a selected group of participants that is representative of a larger sample
D.none of these options

30. 1 The term basic research is BEST defined as research that _____.
A.can be used by others in the same field, but not in other fields (i.e., it is basic to one field only)
B.tests new theories or models of behavior (i.e., it studies new theories without trying to solve a specific problem)
C.is done by students and professors to fulfill their duties (i.e., it is done to get a grade or a tenured teaching position)
D.is done to solve basic problems encountered by humans and animals in a complex world

31. 2 Which of the following would NOT be an appropriate question for psychological study?
A.Does caffeine improve the rate at which rats learn to run mazes?
B.Does punishing teenage drivers who speed decrease teenage speeding?
C.Does sunshine effect the rate at which farm workers pick fruit?
D.Does giving students extra credit for punctuality decrease tardiness to class?

32. 1 Numerous studies have been conducted on student test-taking behavior. The data from these studies have been compiled, and researchers have developed a set of concepts to explain this interrelated data and generate testable questions to verify these concepts. This set of concepts is called a(n) _____.
B.experimental study

33. 1 A survey is a(n) _____.
A.experimental technique for sampling a population's attitudes
B.nonexperimental research technique for sampling a wide variety of behaviors and attitudes in a given population
C.noncorrelational research technique for sampling a wide variety of populations
D.unreliable and invalid research technique, usually used by magazines and political or commercial pollsters

34. 2 Which of the following statements about animal research is FALSE?
A.Shock and other forms of aversive (unpleasant) treatment have been administered to animals in over 90% of animal studies.
B.The APA has set standards for animal research and most institutions who conduct such research have animal care committees to ensure that these standards are carried out and animals are treated properly.
C.Most studies involving animals consist of naturalistic observation or learning experiments using rewards rather than punishment.
D.Animal research has benefited both human beings and animals.

35. 1 The school of psychology that sought to study the elements of conscious experience was _____.

36. 1 Cognitive psychology focuses on the _____.
A.conflict within the unconscious mind
B.positive, creative, growth-seeking potential of human nature
C.decision making, problem solving, concept formation, and other forms of reasoning or mental processing
D.complex biochemical events involved in information processing

37. 1 Applied research is conducted to study _____.
A.how people apply knowledge in an educational setting
B.theoretical questions that may or may not have real-world applications
C.the goals of psychology
D.a specific real-world problem

38. 2 Carlos and Bonita were intrigued by the results of a study about the biases people display toward work done by males compared to work done by females. They decided to perform the same study, following the same procedures themselves to see if they would get the same results. This is an example of _____.
A.an invalid research method
B.a replication of studies
D.a redundant waste of time

39. 2 Hsao-Wei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores, she was placed in a program for gifted children. This is an example of which goal of psychology?
A.describing behavior
B.explaining behavior
C.predicting behavior
D.changing behavior

40. 1 A case study _____.
A.is an in-depth study of a single research subject
B.may be used when it is difficult to obtain a sufficient number of subjects for an experiment, survey, or naturalistic observation
C.sometimes involves the study of rare disorders or situations
D.all of these options

41. 2 Dr. DiMassio is studying PET (brain) scans in patients with schizophrenia and comparing them to PET scans in people who have no psychological disorders. It is likely that Dr. DiMassio is a _____.
A.health psychologist
B.developmental psychologist

42. 1 The largest professional organization of psychologists is the _____; and the largest number of psychologists work in the field of _____ psychology.
A.American Psychiatric Association; counseling and guidance
B.American Medical Association; health
C.American Psychological Association; clinical and personality
D.American Medical Association; industry and business

43. 1 Humanistic psychology emphasizes the _____.
B.perception of wholes
C.positive and growth seeking nature of humans
D.inner thinking processes necessary for human interaction

44. 2 You are really interested in studying social adjustments and interactions from infancy through old age. The field of psychology that would BEST fit your interests is _____.
B.behavioral psychology
C.social psychology
D.developmental psychology

45. 3 Who developed psychoanalytic theory?

46. 1 Your text defines the experimental condition in an experiment as _____.
A.the substance that produces a physiological effect in drug research
B.the part of the experiment in which participants receive the independent variable
C.the part of the experiment in which participants receive the dependent variable
D.the condition that allows cause-effect conclusions to be made

47. 2 Toshio is planning a study to determine what brain pathways are activated during a simple memory task; his colleague, Nicholas, is planning a study to determine the most effective way to teach research basics to college students. Toshio is engaging in _____ research, while Nicholas is engaging in _____ research.
A.ethical; unethical
B.personal; organizational
C.simple; complex
D.basic; applied

48. 1 Your psychology professor has just asked you for a definition and an example of behavior. Which of the following would be the BEST response you could give your professor?
A."Behavior is synonymous with activity, which includes actions such as running, walking, or sleeping."
B."Behavior is anything a person or animal does, feels, or thinks, which includes running, fear, defining a word, childbirth, and so on."
C."Psychologists study the mind, and emphasize mental activities like thoughts and dreams."
D."I was absent from the last two classes. Did I miss anything important?"

49. 2 Which of the following is the BEST example of psychology's goal of describing behavior?
A.giving an interest-inventory (test) at a college counseling center to determine what career or college choices would best suit a student
B.conducting an experiment to determine if watching violent cartoons increases aggressive behavior in preschoolers
C.videotaping an intersection with four-way stop signs and measuring the ratio of complete stops to incomplete stops made by drivers
D.sending first-time drug offenders to an inpatient treatment program rather than to jail

50. 2 The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what theory of personality?

51. 1 The tendency of experimenters to influence the results of their experiment in an expected direction is called _____.
A.experimenter bias
B.control bias
C.observational bias
D.experimental bias

52. 1 A sample is BEST defined as _____.
A.a group of participants in a study that have sampled the treatment condition
B.a selected group of participants that is representative of a larger population
C.the total of all possible cases from which a population is selected
D.a group of participants in a study that is atypical of the larger population

53. 2 The smell of food makes your mouth water. A behaviorist would say that the "smell" is a(n) _____, because it caused you to respond with salivation.
B.activating event
D.organismic event

54. 2 Although Freud's psychoanalytic theory has been criticized because of poor research methodology, one of his major contributions was the observation that _____.
A.personality development is most critical during early adolescence
B.the more troubled a person is, the more the person dreams
C.perverted sexual motives and aggression are developed in early childhood
D.physiological complaints can have psychological causes

55. 2 Dr. Yen-tsu studies both animal and human memory; Dr. Garcia studies how people behave in group situations. Dr. Yen-tsu is likely to be a _____ psychologist, while Dr. Garcia is likely to be a _____ psychologist.
A.comparative; social
B.animal; social
C.comparative; developmental
D.educational; social

56. 2 In their misattribution study, Dutton and Aron claimed that males who were physiologically aroused while crossing a suspension bridge "misattributed" their arousal to having met an attractive woman. Which of the following alternatives has been offered by other researchers to explain these results?
A.the negative reinforcement theory
B.the response-facilitation theory
C.the judgment and adjustment model
D.all of these options

57. 1 Basic research is conducted to study _____.
A.basic psychological needs such as hunger, socialization, and the need for praise
B.theoretical questions that may or may not have real-world applications
C.the goals of psychology
D.a specific real-world problem

58. 1 A placebo is BEST defined as _____.
A.a sugar pill that is used to fool subjects into thinking it is a drug
B.a substance that produces no physiological effect that is used as a control technique in experiments
C.the location where an experiment is conducted
D.none of these options

59. 2 Maria is thinking of running for student body president, but she wonders whether her campaign should emphasize campus security, improved parking facilities, or increased health services. Which scientific method of research would you recommend she use to determine the focus of her campaign?
A.a case study
B.naturalistic observation
C.an experiment
D.a survey

60. 1 Your text defines the control condition in an experiment as _____.
A.the part of the experiment in which participants do not receive the independent variable
B.the part of the experiment in which participants receive the dependent variable
C.the substance that produces no physiological effect in drug research
D.the condition imposed by ethics committees to control for the safety of participants

61. 2 Professor Matsos wants to determine if rewards will increase recycling efforts on campus. The dependent variable in this example is _____.
A.rewards vs. no rewards
B.the amount of recycling done by students and faculty on campus
C.recycling vs. no recycling
D.Professor Matsos

62. 2 Which of the following therapists is NOT violating psychology's ethical standard of confidentiality?
A.Dr. Novak called the Department of Social Services to report her client, who admitted during their session together that she was abusing her nine-year-old daughter.
B.Dr. Jones describes detailed case histories of former clients to his psychology class without disguising their characteristics.
C.Dr. Smith-Nguyen discusses a client with his wife to get her advice.
D.Dr. Polanski told two of his colleagues that he was treating a local television news anchor for major depression, but didn't name her.

63. 1 Behavior that is easily observable, and not concealed or hidden is considered to be _____.

64. 1 When a research result is said to be statistically significant, this means the researchers _____.
A.have good reason to believe the result was a coincidence
B.must repeat their study to confirm their results
C.have good reason to believe they have found a relationship that was not caused by chance
D.must recalculate and reanalyze their data to confirm their results

65. 2 When two variables are positively correlated, this means that _____.
A.the relationship is large and statistically significant
B.an increase in one variable is always associated with a decrease in the other
C.a change in one variable causes a change in the other
D.the value of both variables always increases (or decreases) together

66. 2 Replications of previous studies serve which of the following purposes?
A.increasing the validity of the findings
B.detecting errors in the original study's methodology
C.disputing results that are not consistent with other research findings
D.all of these options

67. 2 You are looking for a psychologist who uses an eclectic approach to psychology. Which of the following would BEST fit this requirement?
A.Dr. Yushi, who focuses on your unconscious mind and behavior
B.Dr. Rodriguez, who considers you as a whole person, using only the techniques she deems appropriate for your specific circumstances
C.Dr. Mozambi, who focuses on your whole self, rather than separate or distinct aspects of your self
D.Dr. Foille, who considers you a unique, worthy individual striving to achieve your full potential

68. 1 Which of the following is the BEST definition of a correlation?
A.a positive relationship between variables
B.a negative relationship between variables
C.a zero relationship between variables
D.the relationship between variables

69. 2 One way to deal with ethnocentrism in scientific research is to _____.
A.forget about it; it does not have that great an impact on research results because people across cultures are more similar than different
B.have a culturally diverse review committee look for ethnocentric flaws in studies that have been completed, and throw out their results
C.have a culturally diverse review committee look for ethnocentric flaws in proposals for future studies, and refuse to approve flawed studies
D.compare four studies: the same study repeated exactly by two culturally different researchers, each conducting the study in their own and the other culture

70. 2 The inability to generalize research results to other people or situations is most directly affected by _____.
A.experimenter bias
B.sample bias
C.the placebo effect
D.the lack of adequate controls

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