1. 2 Winter depression levels are correlated with _____, and _____ treatment greatly improves mood.
A.cold temperatures; warm
B.moderate temperatures; hot
C.average daily light; artificial light
D.total daily light; ultraviolet

2. 1 Abnormal behavior has been defined as _____.
A.a statistically infrequent pattern of pathological emotion, thought, or action
B.a pattern of pathological emotion, thought, or action that results in a disability or dysfunction
C.a pattern of pathological emotion, thought, or action that causes personal distress, or violates social norms
D.all of these options

3. 4 Substance dependence is related to _____.
A.social or occupational problems
C.withdrawal symptoms
D.all of these options

4. 2 Which of the following is NOT an anxiety disorder?
A.social phobia
B.obsessive-compulsive disorder
D.post-traumatic stress disorder

5. 2 In the Japanese social phobia called TKS, people fear that they will _____.
A.evaluate others negatively
B.embarrass themselves
C.embarrass others
D.be embarrassed by others

6. 2 If schizophrenia were completely hereditary, what's the chance that a twin would have the disorder if his identical twin had it?

7. 2 Which of the following is a major diagnostic dimension in the DSM-IV?
A.state disorders and trait disorders
B.psychosocial and environmental stressors
C.general medical conditions and overall level of functioning
D.all of these options

8. 1 Which of the following was NOT a treatment for abnormal behavior in earlier times?
C.burning or drowning

9. 2 A major predictor of who will not develop PTSD after a life-threatening event is _____.
A.physical stamina
B.psychological resources
C.strong social support
D.financial support or resources

10. 4 Impulsive behavior, egocentrism, lack of a conscience, and _____ are all characteristic of an antisocial personality disorder.
A.superficial charm
B.lack of social skills
C.sympathy for victims
D.lack of intelligence

11. 1 People who experience depression primarily during certain seasons may be suffering from _____.
A.dopamine deficiency
B.learned helplessness
D.winter blahs

12. 4 Cognitive explanations for anxiety disorders focus on _____.
A.distorted thinking that magnifies ordinary threats or failures
B.frontal lobe interactions with the limbic system
C.the role of unconscious or repressed thoughts
D.none of these options

13. 2 Some therapists consider DID to be _____.
A.extremely rare
C.popularized by sensational media examples
D.all of these options

14. 1 The DSM-IV provides _____ for mental disorders.
A.categorical descriptions
B.treatment recommendations
C.theoretical causes
D.research suggestions

15. 2 Which of the following MOST clearly illustrates an obsessive-compulsive disorder?
A.Morgan washes her hands 10 times after learning that the patient she just treated has hepatitis B.
B.Kendrick is so anxious about his speech for tomorrow, he reviews his notes 20 times.
C.Constant sexual thoughts have made Lauryn anxious for several months. She now carries a prayer book and feels pressured to read passages over and over everywhere she goes.
D.Mason's house was burglarized last week. He now checks the locks on his doors and windows 5 times a night, and listens to the radio to stop worrying about his safety.

16. 4 The heritability of schizophrenia is about _____.
A.1 to 3%
B.10 to 20%
C.20 to 30%
D.50 to 83%

17. 4 Sensation and perception in schizophrenia is _____.
C.either blunted or excessive
D.the same as in people without this disorder

18. 1 A disorder that is characterized by severely disturbed perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior is _____.
B.multiple personality disorder
C.borderline psychosis
D.neurotic psychosis

19. 4 A major depressive disorder is BEST characterized by _____.
A.frequent melancholia, prolonged blues, or prolonged grief
B.a long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with functioning, pleasure, and life interests
C.any depression of mood that also includes suicidal thoughts
D.recurring or persistent episodes of depressed mood, with or without psychotic thinking and suicidality

20. 1 The purpose of the DSM-IV is to provide ____.
A.descriptions of disorders
B.explanations of the causes of disorders
C.treatment options for disorders
D.all of these options

21. 2 Which of the following delusions is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.grandeur: Buddha is my savior.
B.reference: The television news-anchor is sending me messages.
C.persecution: The CIA, FBI, and IRS want to lock me up or kill me.
D.paranoid: My neighbors are listening through the walls and following my footsteps.

22. 2 Based on the personal distress approach to defining abnormal behavior, which of the following would qualify as abnormal?
A.Two teenagers kill and injure fellow classmates and teachers, but feel no remorse afterwards.
B.A father uses alcohol to get through the day, with no concern for the consequences.
C.A grandmother commits suicide in order to end the pain and suffering from her terminal illness.
D.none of these options would qualify under this approach

23. 4 This type of anxiety is associated with a generalized anxiety disorder.
C.panic attack
D.nervous breakdown

24. 1 _____ is the specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.

25. 4 A person with schizophrenia is more likely to _____ than _____.
A.have negative symptoms; positive ones
B.be self-destructive; violent toward others
C.display violence; restraint
D.become catatonic; commit suicide

26. 4 Treatment for DID includes _____.
A.confrontation of alternate personalities
B.helping the patient develop better coping skills for a childhood trauma
C.giving each personality its own name and times for being in control
D.antipsychotic medications

27. 2 The MAJOR importance of the Rosenhan study of pseudopatients is that _____.
A.psychiatrists often misdiagnose people with abnormal behavior
B.patients are better than trained professionals at diagnosing mental disorders
C.staff may lose sight of a person's individuality once a diagnostic label is assigned
D.research like this is unethical because it may harm the participants

28. 2 Maxwell was not chosen for the baseball team. Which of the following attributions will DECREASE his chances of feeling depressed?
A."I'm just no good at baseball."
B."I've never been good at baseball, and never will be."
C."Baseball, basketball, school—I've failed at all of them."
D."Today just wasn't my day."

29. 4 Hallucinations and delusions are symptoms of _____.
A.mood disorders
B.personality disorders
C.anxiety disorders

30. 2 In explaining the proverb, "Still waters run deep," someone with schizophrenia might reply _____.
A."Water can't run, but I still can."
B."Water that isn't moving is probably very deep."
C."Running water is shallow."
D."Quiet people often have complex thoughts."

31. 2 One reason men may experience a lower rate of severe depression than women is because _____.
A.they are encouraged to act out aggressively rather than passively withdraw
B.the genes responsible for depression have been found on the X chromosome, and men have only one of these
C.they tend to cope better with negative feelings
D.all of these options

32. 1 The two main types of mood disorders are _____.
A.major depression; bipolar disorder
B.mania; depression
D.learned helplessness; suicide

33. 1 A condition in which two or more distinct personalities coexist in the same person is called _____.
A.dissociative identity disorder (DID)
B.multiple personality disorder (MPD)
C.plural personality disorder (PPD)
D.dissociative personality disorder (DPD)

34. 2 This is NOT a possible explanation for depression.
A.imbalances of serotonin or norepinephrine
B.genetic predisposition
C.lithium deficiency
D.learned helplessness

35. 2 Udo is suddenly and frequently overcome by intense fear, heart palpitations, dizziness, and difficult breathing. Lola has not been able to control her worries for the last six months, and complains of insomnia and headaches. It is likely that Udo suffers from _____, and Lola has _____.
A.post-traumatic stress disorder; panic attacks
B.panic disorder; generalized anxiety disorder
C.hysteria; obsessive-compulsive disorder
D.agoraphobia; hysteria

36. 1 _____ refers to "split mind," while _____ refers to "split personality."
A.Psychosis; neurosis
B.Insanity; multiple personality
C.Schizophrenia; dissociative identity disorder
D.Paranoia; borderline

37. 2 Which of the following is FALSE about the DSM-IV?
A.It completely describes symptoms of mental disorders.
B.It provides standardized diagnoses and treatment options.
C.It reflects a Western European and American perspective of mental disorders.
D.It relies on psychologically-based explanations for mental disorders, rather than the medical model of mental illness.

38. 4 PET scans show that some people with chronic schizophrenia have less activity in _____ compared to people without schizophrenia.
A.the frontal lobes
B.the temporal lobes
C.the frontal and temporal lobes
D.all the cerebral lobes

39. 2 Worthington has been praying and fasting for days. His healer has been making extraordinary noises, beating him, and giving him foul-tasting brews to drink. It is MOST likely that Worthington and his healer are _____.
A.both psychotic
B.engaged in a sadomasochistic ritual
C.exorcising the demons that are responsible for Worthington's troubles
D.exercising their right to do whatever they want in private

40. 4 Antidepressants and lithium are prescribed for mood disorders because they appear to affect the amount or functioning of _____ in the brain.
A.norepinephrine and serotonin

41. 2 Which of the following is TRUE regarding suicide?
A.People who talk about it won't do it.
B.Only depressed or psychotic people commit suicide.
C.A family history of suicide increases a person's risk for suicide.
D.Women commit suicide more often than men.

42. 2 Which of the following is FALSE regarding bipolar disorder?
A.It is associated with a 10-20% suicide rate.
B.It is one of the more common mood disorders.
C.It can consist of manic episodes only.
D.Depressive episodes usually last three times as long as manic episodes.

43. 4 Antisocial personality disorder is highly correlated with emotional deprivation, harsh and inconsistent discipline, and modeling of antisocial behavior by parents. This suggests that _____.
A.learning is a cause of this disorder
B.parenting is a cause of this disorder
C.learning and parenting are causes of this disorder
D.more research is needed to determine the causes of this disorder

44. 1 A stress-related disorder characterized by amnesia, fugue, or multiple personality is called a(n) _____.
A.dissociative disorder
B.displacement disorder
C.disoriented disorder
D.identity disorder

45. 1 This is an example of a hallucination.
A.hearing voices that aren't really there
B.seeing a bridge and thinking it is the gateway to heaven
C.smelling a flower and believing its odor belongs to a skunk
D.walking into a tree because you didn't see it

46. 4 Which of the following biological factors is likely to be a causal factor in antisocial personality disorder?
B.testosterone levels
C.abnormal brain waves
D.all of these options

47. 2 Research on dissociative identity disorder suggests that _____.
A.alternate personalities display distinctly different psychological and physiological patterns
B.a history of child abuse, usually sexual, is found in nearly all cases
C.false memories can be created, and may account for this disorder
D.all of these options

48. 4 MRI studies of people with schizophrenia have found that they have _____ compared to people without schizophrenia.
A.smaller frontal lobes
B.larger cerebral ventricles
C.larger temporal lobes
D.smaller cerebral ventricles

49. 2 "I'm stupid" is a(n) _____ statement, "I'll always be stupid" is a(n) _____ statement, and "I'll never pass any of my classes" is a(n) _____ statement.
A.inferior; external; expansive
B.external; unstable; specific
C.internal; stable; global
D.personal; eternal; academic

50. 1 _____ is an excessive and unreasonable state of excitement and impulsive behavior.

51. 2 In Rosenhan's study, several of the _____ detected the deception of the pseudopatients, and on release the staff reported the pseudopatients' condition as _____.
A.nurses; faking
B.doctors; malingering
C.patients; schizophrenia in remission
D.patients and most of the staff; unethical

52. 2 Egocentrism, lack of a conscience, impulsive behavior, and charisma are characteristic of someone _____.
A.in the manic phase of a bipolar disorder
B.with schizophrenia in remission
C.with a narcissistic personality disorder
D.with an antisocial personality disorder

53. 4 Expressed emotionality (EE) is associated with relapse in patients who return home after hospitalization for schizophrenia. EE is characterized by family communication that includes _____.
A.criticism, hostility, and over-involvement with the patient
B.word salad, neologisms, and circumstantial speech
C.emotional withdrawal and oversimplified interactions
D.telegraphic speech

54. 4 Someone who experiences episodes of mania or cycles between mania and depression has a _____.
A.disruption of circadian rhythms
B.bipolar disorder
C.manic-depressive syndrome
D.cyclothymia disorder

55. 2 After being savagely assaulted, Roswald suffered from dissociative amnesia and was unable to recall _____.
A.how to read and write
B.how to operate his car and computer
C.his name and address
D.all of these options

56. 4 Amnesia, fugue, and multiple personality disorders share this characteristic.
A.a splitting apart of a painful experience from consciousness
B.damage to the hippocampus, which is involved in memory
C.a splitting apart of reality and fantasy
D.low self-esteem

57. 4 The data on antisocial personality disorder suggests all EXCEPT which of the following?
A.It is present in 2 to 3 percent of the population.
B.The ratio of men to women with this disorder is 4:1.
C.Most people with this disorder become criminals and end up in jail.
D.none of these options are exceptions

58. 4 The dopamine hypothesis is supported by which of the following findings?
A.amphetamines increase dopamine and produce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
B.amphetamine-induced psychosis is more likely in persons with a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia
C.drugs that block the effects of dopamine in the brain reduce or eliminate positive symptoms of schizophrenia
D.all of these options

59. 4 These neurotransmitters may be involved in depression and mania.
A.dopamine and adrenaline
B.norepinephrine and serotonin
C.acetylcholine and dopamine
D.all of these options

60. 4 A person has a substance-related disorder when that person's use of a psychoactive substance _____.
A.becomes a problem due to its effects on mental functioning
B.violates societal norms for its use
C.violates legal regulations for its use
D.any or all of these options

61. 4 A Japanese phobia characterized by an intense dread of embarrassing others does not exist in Western cultures. This demonstrates _____.
B.a cultural difference in emphasis on others vs. individuals
C.the presence of more social phobias in Japan
D.all of these options

62. 4 The presence of inflexible, maladaptive personality traits is characteristic of _____.
A.nearly all mental disorders
B.the psychotic and dissociative disorders
C.personality disorders
D.none of these options

63. 1 A thought disturbance characterized by mistaken beliefs that are maintained in spite of strong evidence to the contrary is called a(n) _____.
A.cognitive disruption
B.false premise

64. 4 Substance abuse is related to ______.
A.social or occupational problems
C.withdrawal symptoms
D.all of these options

65. 2 The most common psychiatric problem in males is _____.
A.antisocial personality disorder
B.cocaine abuse
C.bipolar disorder

66. 2 Jamanani was raised to believe that people who behaved abnormally were possessed by evil spirits; Zelos agrees with Hippocrates that abnormal behavior arises from a physical condition. Jamanani adheres to the _____ model of abnormality; Zelos adheres to the _____ model.
A.spiritual; psychiatric
B.mind; body
C.demonological; medical
D.psychological; biological

67. 1 A(n) _____ occurs when sensory perception occurs in the absence of external stimuli.
D.flight of ideas

68. 2 People who experience feelings of terror and helpless during a life-threatening event, and recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, emotional numbness, and impaired concentration afterwards are _____.
A.suffering from a psychosomatic illness
B.experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder
C.having a nervous breakdown
D.weaker than people who take such events in stride

69. 4 When one identical twin has a mood disorder, the other twin has a _____ chance of developing the disorder.
D.99% or more.

70. 1 _____ is the presence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time.
A.Dual diagnosis
C.Double jeopardy
D.Double indemnity

71. 2 A major difference between major depressive and bipolar disorder is that only in bipolar disorders do people have _____.
A.hallucinations or delusions
C.a biochemical imbalance
D.manic episodes

72. 4 This anxiety state cannot be prevented by avoidance.
B.generalized anxiety disorder
C.panic disorder
D.obsessive-compulsive disorder

73. 4 The _____ suggests that schizophrenia is caused by an overactivity of dopamine neurons in a specific region of the brain.
A.neurotransmitter theory
B.dopamine hypothesis
C.schizophrenogenic perspective
D.hyperneuronal activity model

74. 2 Frances just lost her job because she tested positive for marijuana use. This is an example of the _____ approach to defining abnormal behavior.
A.infrequent occurrence
B.personal dysfunction or distress
D.violation of social norms

75. 4 According to learning theory, the development of an anxiety disorder may be related to _____, while the maintenance of that disorder may be related to _____.
A.operant conditioning; imitation and modeling
B.vicarious learning; operant conditioning
C.classical conditioning; operant conditioning
D.classical conditioning; imitation and modeling

76. 4 The primary cause of dissociative identity disorder is believed to be _____.
A.damage to the hippocampus during childhood
B.severe trauma during childhood
C.the desire for escape from a mundane life in adulthood
D.all of these options

77. 4 Which of the following is a psychosocial theory of depression?
A.Depression is the result of turning anger inward.
B.When positive growth is blocked, depression is the result.
C.Depression results from learning that pain cannot be avoided.
D.all of these options

78. 2 Psychotic symptoms similar to those found in schizophrenia can also occur with the use of _____.
B.microwave ovens
D.satellite TV

79. 2 Classification of schizophrenia into paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, and undifferentiated have recently been criticized because _____.
A.they affect the self-esteem of patients with this disorder
B.they do not explain the causes and have little predictive value regarding recovery
C.the undifferentiated category is the same as the disorganized category
D.they are misunderstood by the public and professionals alike

80. 1 The _____ assumes that abnormal behavior is due to mental or physical illness.
A.medical model
B.psychiatric perspective
C.psychobiological approach
D.mind-body hypothesis

81. 4 Which of the following data is correctly associated with schizophrenia?
A.1 in 100 people develops schizophrenia
B.schizophrenia usually develops in adolescence or young adulthood
C.almost 50% of all hospitalized patients suffer from schizophrenia
D.all of these options

82. 4 For people with seasonal affective disorder, depression occurs during the _____.

83. 2 Leroy refuses to dance because of an intense, irrational fear of being negatively evaluated by others; Myron avoids hospitals, doctor's offices, and people with injuries because he always faints at the sight of blood. Leroy has a(n) _____ phobia; Myron has a _____ phobia.
A.emotional; physical
B.social; specific
C.evaluation; medical
D.situational; generalized

84. 1 _____ is a culture-bound disorder that is characterized by an obsession with cannibalism.
A.anorexia cannibalis
B.flesh-eating fetish
C.windigo psychosis
D.none of these options; there is no such disorder

85. 2 According to your text's definition of abnormal behavior, which of the following statistically infrequent behaviors would qualify as abnormal?
A.the belief that the CIA is following you
B.having your entire body tattooed
C.living a completely celibate life
D.all of these options

86. 1 Repetitive, ritualistic behaviors such as handwashing, counting, or putting things in order that are associated with an anxiety state are called _____.

87. 2 According to the diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia, someone with an inherited predisposition for schizophrenia experiences a schizophrenic episode when they encounter _____.
A.more stress than they can handle
B.low levels of stress
C.moderate levels of stress
D.the same level of stress as anyone else

88. 1 Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.Zoophobia: fear of animals
B.Thanatophobia: fear of death
C.Hydrophobia: fear of water
D.Claustrophobia: fear of high places

89. 1 A _____ is a disturbed combination of two or more words; _____ is a combination of words and phrases into incomprehensible sentences.
A.syntax error; pragmatic error
B.neologism; world salad
C.flight of ideas; word soup
D.pragmatism; flight of ideas

90. 1 Anxiety disorders are _____.
A.characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear
B.the least frequent of the mental disorders
C.twice as common in men as in women
D.all of these options

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