1. 2 Garner is imaginative, curious, and interested in new ideas; Brandy is conventional, down-to-earth, and has limited interests. It is likely that Garner scores high, and Brandy scores low on the personality dimension of _____ in the five-factor model.

2. 2 Victor's religious beliefs prohibit sexual expression until after marriage. He takes up painting nudes to deal with his sexual impulses. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

3. 1 A multiphasic personality test measures _____.
A.multiple personalities
B.a range of personality traits
C.personalities that emerge during different developmental phases
D.personalities that emerge during different phases of the moon

4. 3 According to Carl Rogers, it is important to receive unconditional positive regard in order to develop a(n) _____ that is capable of self-actualization.
B.personal unconscious

5. 2 Dr. Hewett wants to know whether his patient is suffering from excessive anxiety. If he administers a test that asks about the patient's sexual preferences, eating habits, hobbies, and major interests he would be acting foolishly because such a test lacks _____.
D.face value

6. 4 Subjects given a "made up" general personality description and one that is specifically designed for them based on scientifically legitimate personality tests are likely to _____.
A.believe the generalized "made up" description
B.believe the specific legitimate description
C.blend the descriptions into a believable whole
D.none of the these options

7. 1 Which of the following is NOT one of the erogenous zones in Freud's psychosexual stages?

8. 1 _____ theories emphasize the importance of the brain, neurochemistry, and genetics in the development of personality.

9. 4 Most psychologists agree that defense mechanisms _____.
A.can be healthy when not used excessively
B.are unhealthy and should be eliminated through therapy
C.are a sign of emotional damage that cannot be corrected in therapy
D.are used excessively by most people in modern society

10. 3 According to Buss, the five-factor model of personality traits reflects a(n) ______ advantage to people who are high on each of the factors.

11. 3 According to Rogers, all but one of the following are innate biological capacities found in all human beings.
B.mental health

12. 2 Every time Nikolai gets into a big argument with his wife, he runs to his mother's home for comfort and approval. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

13. 4 One reason people tend to believe in pseudo personality tests is because they have "something for everyone." This is called the _____.
A.Barnum Effect
B.Sucker Effect
C.Bailey Effect
D.Rule of Universals

14. 1 In the superego, the _____ contains a list of societal prohibitions (don'ts), and the _____ contains the list of behaviors that can make us feel pride in ourselves (do's).
A.unconscious; conscious
B.conscious; preconscious
C.conscience; ego-ideal
D.perfectionistic; unrealistic

15. 1 Which of the following is FALSE regarding projective personality tests?
A.Because there are no obvious right or wrong answers, it is harder to fake responses, compared to objective tests.
B.They are unstructured, and may allow access to a person's unconscious or hidden feelings and cognitive processes.
C.They are used by many professionals because they have the highest reliability and validity of all the personality tests.
D.They take more time to administer and score than objective tests.

16. 4 Which of the following is FALSE regarding the ego?
A.It channels and releases the energy of the id in reality-based ways.
B.It resides entirely within the conscious realm.
C.It attempts to satisfy the superego's need for social approval and self-esteem.
D.It operates on the reality principle.

17. 2 The _____ perspective suggests that understanding others requires knowing how they perceive the world, and is the basis for the _____ approach to psychology.
A.structuralist; gestalt
B.fundamentalist; spiritual
C.phenomenological; humanistic
D.metaphysics; eclectic

18. 1 According to your text, one of the BEST definitions of personality is your _____.
A.unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions
B.relatively stable and consistent characteristics that describe you accurately
C.innate tendencies to think, act, and feel a certain way in all situations
D.innate disposition that drives your cognitions, behaviors, and emotions

19. 2 Cicily believes she can become the top saleswoman in her company; consequently, she comes in early and stays late which puts her in contact with more customers. Additionally, her enthusiasm inspires customers to pay attention to the benefits of her product, and every sale Cicily makes inspires her to make another. This is an example of Bandura's theory of _____.
B.congruent behavior
C.synergistic success
D.reciprocal determinism

20. 2 Zhu would much rather spend all day hanging with the guys than spend five minutes talking to a girl. In fact, he has such little interest in sexual matters that he would even rather do his homework than engage in playing doctor with the girl next door. Freud would MOST likely suggest that Zhu is _____.
A.in the latency stage of development
B.showing signs of latent homosexuality
C.likely to develop a neurotic outlook on women
D.repressing his gender confusion

21. 3 Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.Adler: individual psychology
B.Jung: collective psychology
C.Horney: basic anxiety
D.all of these options are correctly matched

22. 2 In Freud's horse and rider analogy of the psyche, the horse is the _____, and rider is the _____.
A.ego; superego
B.id; superego
C.superego; ego
D.id; ego

23. 4 A disadvantage to the superego is that it unrealistically strives for _____.
A.moral behavior in an immoral world
C.immediate gratification

24. 3 In Jungian psychology, the archetypes for gender role are the _____.
A.mandala and mandalus
B.anima and animus
C.mother and father
D.phallus and flower

25. 1 The study of behavioral differences and the relative contribution of genes and environment is called _____.
A.the biobehavioral approach
B.the genetic-environmental perspective
C.behavioral genetics
D.the biopsychosocial model

26. 3 According to Jung, the primitive images and patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that reside in the collective unconscious are called _____.
A.animal instincts
C.the latent unconscious
D.the Oedipus complex

27. 3 Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.Erikson's Trust vs. Mistrust stage: Freud's oral stage
B.Erikson's Autonomy vs. Doubt/Shame: Freud's latency stage
C.Erikson's Initiative vs. Guilt: Freud's phallic stage
D.Erikson's Identity vs. Role Confusion: Freud's early genital stage

28. 3 According to Adler, feelings of helplessness and incompetence during childhood results in _____.
B.basic anxiety
C.an inferiority complex
D.learned helplessness

29. 3 According to Freud, if an individual's needs were _____ during a particular stage of development, that person would remain stuck at that stage.
C.overindulged or frustrated
D.none of these options

30. 3 Rogers thinks _____ is necessary for a child's uniqueness and positive self-concept to unfold naturally.
A.permissive parenting
B.a challenging environment
C.unconditional positive regard
D.a friendly neighborhood

31. 3 The theory that strong biological urges manifest themselves at different ages and push us through five universal stages from birth to 12 years, during which specific pleasures must be gratified for normal personality development to occur, is called _____.
A.Erikson's psychosocial stages of development
B.Piaget's cognitive stages of development
C.Kohlberg's moral stages of development
D.Freud's psychosexual stages of development

32. 1 An individual's relatively stable and enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions is known as _____.

33. 3 According to Rogers, the information and beliefs you have about your nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is called your _____.
D.actualizing self

34. 1 When a child learns the rules and values of parents and society, and incorporates them into his own psyche, that child has developed his _____.
B.spiritual consciousness
C.ethical ego

35. 3 The concept of "will to power" that causes children to strive to be superior to others and develop their own capacities was formulated by _____.

36. 1 The _____ is concerned with immediate gratification and the avoidance of discomfort.
D.all of these options

37. 2 You would rather have fun with your new dating partner than study for your math exam. You know you will do poorly on the exam if you don't study, but tell yourself that having fun will help you relax for the exam. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.
D.reaction formation

38. 1 The _____ is a widely used self-report test that determines the presence of disturbed personality characteristics.
A.l6 PF
C.Internal-External Locus of Control Test
D.structured interview

39. 1 Harmony just learned that her brother is gay, and wants him to know that she cares about him. She compliments him before he leaves for school by saying, "I really like your skirt...I mean shirt." This could be an example of _____.
B.a socially undesirable remark
C.a Freudian slip
D.conditional positive regard

40. 2 Two important criteria for evaluating the usefulness of tests used to assess personality are _____.
A.concurrence and prediction
B.reliability and validity
C.consistency and correlation
D.diagnosis and prognosis

41. 3 According to Freud, castration anxiety in young boys occurs because they fear that _____.
A.they have masturbated too much
B.they might still turn into girls as they get older
C.their fathers might castrate them because they are rivals for their mothers' attention
D.their sisters might castrate them because they have penis envy

42. 1 Which of the following is NOT one of Freud's erogenous zones?
A.his cigar
B.his beard
C.his couch
D.all of these options

43. 1 When someone violates the rules of the conscience and ego-ideal, they experience guilt. This is part of the _____, which operates on the _____ principle.
A.id; pleasure
B.ego; reality
C.superego; morality
D.unconscious; punishment

44. 3 According to Horney, the emotionally healthy person will _____.
A.move toward or away from people
B.move toward people only
C.move against and away from people
D.balance moving toward, away, and against people

45. 2 Toland is angry with his mother for making him go to bed. His mother tells him, "Nice boys don't hate their mothers." In Rogerian terms, this is an example of _____.
A.incongruence between self-concept and life experiences
B.an incompatible self-concept
C.how to condition appropriate emotional responses
D.a phenomenological process

46. 3 According to Jung, our collective unconscious consists of _____.
A.inherited, primitive images and archetypes
B.one's cultural architecture
C.the "archaeology of the soul"
D.all of these options

47. 2 Gabrielle didn't study for this exam and really wants to cheat. This is entirely unacceptable to her superego, which won't let her do this. However, Gabrielle thinks she sees nearly everyone else in the class cheating during the exam. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.
B.reaction formation

48. 1 Phrenology refers to the study of _____.
A.mental illness, based on the size of a person's head
B.personality, based on the location of bumps on a person's head
C.animal personality, based on an animal's social interactions
D.character, based on nonverbal behaviors and physical features

49. 1 Which of the following is NOT used by a psychologist to assess someone's personality?
A.direct observation
B.a structured interview
C.an unstructured interview
D.objective handwriting analysis

50. 1 The _____ approach represents a blending of several theories of personality.

51. 2 Wilson took this psychology course once before and failed. However, he refuses to give up, and believes that he can earn a "C" or better this time even though he still has to work part-time. It is likely that Wilson _____.
A.suffers from delusions of grandeur
B.has a high locus of control
C.has high self-efficacy
D.is engaged in reciprocal determinism

52. 2 Mr. Polanski listens without judgment to his daughter's reasons for being late, then informs her that he disapproves of her behavior, and provides consequences. This is an example of _____.
A.phenomenological parenting
B.unconditional positive regard
C.permissive parenting
D.authoritarian parenting

53. 3 According to Freud, each stage of development is characterized by a conflict between the id and the _____. If unresolved, Freud believed a person would become _____.
A.ego; psychotic
B.superego; immoral
C.social environment; fixated
D.ego and superego; regressed

54. 2 Which of the following is NOT a criticism of trait approaches to personality?
A.They describe and explain behavior, but cannot be used to change behavior.
B.They do not identify which traits are stable, and which are transient.
C.They do not predict behavior.
D.The five-factor model does not account for the large variation in personalities.

55. 2 Research on the "Big 5" (five-factor model) shows that _____ personalities closely resemble the human "Big 5."
A.lizard and fish
D.all of these options

56. 1 The rational part of the psyche that tries to meet the needs of the other two mental structures is called the _____.
D.none of these options

57. 4 Neo-Freudians emphasized the influence of _____ in personality development to a greater extent than Freud.
A.genetic and evolutionary factors
B.early childhood experiences
C.anxiety and conflict
D.social and cultural factors

58. 3 According to Freud, sexual relationships based on lust rather than emotional attachment and a desire for commitment are indicators that an individual _____.
A.is in the phallic stage of development
B.has failed to master the genital stage of development
C.is fixated at the oral stage of development
D.none of these options

59. 1 The id's attempts at immediate gratification of needs and avoidance of pain are controlled and channeled by the _____.
C.ego and superego
D.parents and other authority figures

60. 2 During the _____ stage of psychosexual development, children develop _____, which is a desire for the opposite-sex parent along with a desire to displace the same-sex parent.
A.oral; homosexual tendencies
B.phallic; an Oedipus complex
C.anal; retentive-expulsive fantasies
D.genital; womb or penis envy

61. 2 Dr. Valentine believes that to understand his patients he must learn how they perceive the world, because there is no external, objective reality. Dr. Valentine _____.
A.believes in the phenomenological approach to psychology
B.has an eclectic view of his patients
C.probably believes in the collectives of the unconscious
D.believes in biological determinism

62. 2 If you took the _____ approach to personality, you would emphasize internal experiences, like feelings and thoughts, and the basic worth of the individual.

63. 2 At N. Sanity Hospital, none of the psychologists can agree on the results of a personality test for a newly admitted patient. It is MOST likely that the test this patient took was the _____.
A.Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)
B.the original Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
C.Rorschach inkblot test
D.California Psychological Inventory (CPI)

64. 2 Samsara is aloof and self-contained. She prefers to read and work on her computer rather than engage in camping or other outdoor activities. She feels emotions deeply, but rarely displays them. Her thoughts are complex and focused on philosophical questions rather than every-day practicalities. This is a description of Samsara's _____.
A.basic temperament
C.personality disorder

65. 3 According to Freud, the thoughts and information that you are completely aware of right now is called your _____, and the part that you can easily bring to awareness is called your _____.
A.psyche; subconscious
B.id; ego
C.ego; id
D.conscious; preconscious

66. 3 According to Rogers, your self-esteem contains _____.
A.the information and beliefs you have about your nature, qualities and behavior
B.good feelings about yourself
C.bad feelings about yourself
D.good and bad feelings about yourself

67. 2 If you received a blow to your head that left a visible bump, which of the following professionals would refuse to perform an assessment on you until the bump subsided?
A.a hair dresser
B.a phrenologist
C.a psychologist
D.a psychiatrist

68. 3 Cattell and Eysenck both used the statistical technique called _____ to determine a cluster of personality traits they believe are universally shared.
A.source analysis
B.trait reduction
D.factor analysis

69. 4 In collectivist cultures, the self is describe in terms of _____.
A.a collection of various traits
B.social relationships
C.cultural accomplishments
D.a comparison with others

70. 3 Rotter believed that personality or behavior is determined by your _____.
A.cognitive expectancies
B.cognitive reinforcers

71. 3 Besides sexual and aggressive forces, Jung believed the unconscious contained _____.
A.basic anxiety
B.a will-to-power
C.a striving for superiority
D.positive and spiritual motives

72. 3 According to Freud, the three mental structures in the psyche are the _____.
A.unconscious, preconscious, and conscious
B.oral, anal, and phallic
C.Oedipus, Electra, and sexual/aggressive
D.id, ego, and superego

73. 3 The personality theorist who believed in the basic goodness of individuals, and their natural tendency toward self-actualization was _____.
A.Carl Rogers
B.Alfred Adler
C.Abraham Maslow
D.Carl Jung

74. 1 A(n) _____ test measures your potential abilities, a(n) _____ test measures what you already know, and a(n) _____ test measures what sort of things you like to do.
A.aptitude; achievement; vocational interest
B.personality; IQ; aptitude
C.projective; objective; subjective
D.ability; knowledge; behavior

75. 1 The idea that several factors overlap and each of several theories contributes to our understanding of personality is called _____.
B.the biopsychosocial perspective
C.the eclectic approach
D.shared environment theory

76. 1 The _____ principle asserts that the ego tries to meet the demand of the id by adapting to the demands of objects and events in the external environment.
B.environmental demands

77. 4 If you believe what a pseudo personality test says about you, this may be because everyone has a tendency to prefer the flattering or neutral statements about themselves that such tests contain. This is called the _____ explanation.
A.Fallacy of Positive Comments
B.Self-Serving Bias
C.Delusion of Perfection
D.Goodness of Fit

78. 2 Which of the following is NOT a criticism of Freud's psychoanalytic theory?
A.Most of his concepts cannot be empirically tested.
B.Most of his data came from case studies of wealthy women.
C.He under-emphasized the role of biological determinants.
D.Some of his views were misogynistic.

79. 1 The first and most basic defense mechanism, which blocks unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness, is called _____.

80. 2 If Pearce took a depression inventory one day that indicated he suffered from severe depression, and took the same test the next day that indicated he experienced little to no depression, you might conclude that this test of depression lacked _____.
D.face validity

81. 2 Humanistic approaches to personality emphasize the importance of _____.
A.intrapsychic conflicts
C.observational learning
D.the basic goodness in human nature

82. 1 Your beliefs about who or what is in charge of the outcomes in your life is/are called your _____.
A.environmental expectancies
B.locus of control
C.outcome contingencies
D.cognitive power

83. 4 According to your text, the major objective of the MMPI-2 is to _____.
A.determine whether a patient's personality is normal
B.assess a person's propensity to lie or distort the truth
C.diagnose psychological disorders
D.all of these options

84. 4 Heritability studies suggest that personality traits range from .41 to .51. This suggests that genetic factors contribute about _____ to personality development.
A..4 to .5%
B.4 to 5%
C.40 to 50%
D.20 to 25%

85. 2 Clement is a gullible, dependent, and passive adult; Bernard is an aggressive, sadistic, exploitative adult. Freud might say Clement was _____ and Bernard was ____ during _____ stage of development.
A.frustrated; overindulged; their anal
B.overindulged; frustrated; their phallic
C.overindulged; frustrated; their oral
D.frustrated; frustrated; every

86. 3 Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.Allport: personality consists of a limited number of traits, arranged in a hierarchy
B.Cattell: proposed a list of 30-35 personality traits
C.Eysenck: personality consists of a relationship between three basic types of traits
D.Big Five: BEACH

87. 3 According to Bandura, _____ involves a person's belief about whether he or she can successfully engage in behaviors related to personal goals.

88. 3 _____ is NOT associated with trait theories of personality.

89. 1 The Rorschach tests a person's responses to _____.

90. 2 At the end of a very busy week, Sumita is enjoying a jazz concert with her husband, and plans to eat dinner afterwards. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true regarding her levels of consciousness?
A.She is subconsciously aware of music.
B.A hungry feeling is tucked away in her unconscious.
C.Anger at her first math teacher is present at all levels of her psyche.
D.With a little prompting, her fatigue could come up from her preconscious.

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