1. 2 Mr. Bundy believes that women make poor shoe salespersons, but hires a woman to sell his shoes anyway. Based on this information, which of the following is TRUE regarding Mr. Bundy?
A.He is prejudiced, but does not discriminate against women.
B.He discriminates, but is not prejudiced against women.
C.He is prejudiced and discriminates against women.
D.He hired his daughter because his wife made him.

2. 2 One of the best ways to decrease prejudice is to encourage _____.
B.friendly competition
C.reciprocity of liking

3. 2 Who is MOST likely to learn a prejudice against a new group of people? A child who _____.
A.watches a movie in which members of this group are demeaned
B.hears his parents and friends make derogatory statements about members of this group
C.demeans a member of this group and experiences a rise in his own self-esteem
D.all of these children are learning to be prejudiced

4. 4 This is NOT studied by social psychologists.
A.how others influence an individual's thoughts
B.how groups interact with other groups
C.how a person's feelings are affected by others
D.how an individual acts in the presence of others

5. 1 Proximity is a key factor in attraction, which means that two people need to be _____.
A.close to each other in size, shape, and other physical features
B.matched in personality traits
C.geographically close to each other
D.all of these options

6. 1 The study of how other people influence an individual's behavior is called _____.
B.social science
C.social psychology
D.sociobehavioral psychology

7. 3 The theory that says people are motivated to change one or more of their attitudinal components when they experience tension after becoming aware of inconsistencies between their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behaviors is called _____.
A.Bandura's social learning theory
B.Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory
C.Freud's defense mechanisms theory
D.Leon's power of inconsistencies theory

8. 3 Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in Latane and Darley's model of helping behavior?
A.noticing the event or problem
B.interpreting the event or problem as an emergency
C.accepting personal responsibility
D.solving the problem

9. 2 Rosa Parks is a good example of the power of _____ in reducing obedience.
A.disobedient models
B.the foot-in-the-door technique
D.anti-discrimination laws

10. 1 Two or more people interacting and influencing one another's behavior is your text's definition of _____.
A.a group
B.group sex
C.a party
D.social intercourse

11. 1 People will attack an alternate target group rather than the real source of their frustration when the source is either bigger and retaliatory, or when the source is ambiguous or unknown. This is the _____ explanation for prejudice.
A.displaced aggression
D.projected frustration

12. 1 A _____ is a method for reducing prejudice that involves creating a goal that benefits both the minority and majority groups and requires cooperation to achieve.
A.reciprocal task
B.homogenous task
C.superordinate goal
D.supercilious goal

13. 4 Cross-cultural research suggests that cognitive dissonance may be a result of placing a high value on _____.
A.independence and individualism
B.connection with others
C.appraisal by others
D.honesty and integrity

14. 4 Research predicts that children who watch more TV violence _____.
A.will act more aggressively
B.may imitate the violence
C.will learn that violence is acceptable
D.all of these options

15. 4 Pointing to someone in a crowd and telling her to call the police increases helping by _____.
A.decreasing the diffusion of responsibility
B.decreasing social loafing
C.initiating the egoistic model
D.decreasing the size of the crowd

16. 3 In the classic Asch study of conformity, _____ of the subjects conformed and agreed with the obviously incorrect choice made by other group members.
A.less than 10 percent
B.about one-quarter
C.more than one-third
D.more than 50 percent

17. 2 If Earth was threatened by a comet from outer space, it is likely that ethnic fighting would decrease as nations came together to prevent this global calamity. This is an example of how _____ is(are) important in reducing prejudice.
A.supernatural phenomena
B.superordinate goals
C.cosmic cooperation
D.intergalactic interference

18. 3 What recommendation did Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber make regarding the future of research on aggression?
A.explore the genetic pathway
B.explore the cultural pathway
C.explore the learning pathway
D.explore multiple pathways at once

19. 1 Prejudice is a _____ directed toward others based on their group membership.
A.negative behavior
B.generally negative attitude
D.all of these options

20. 2 Faulty decision making that is the result of a highly cohesive group striving for agreement to the point of avoiding inconsistent information is known as _____.
A.the risky shift
B.group polarization
D.destructive conformity

21. 4 When a natural disaster strikes, members of a community who previously distrusted or fought with each other often work together to deal with the aftermath. Once the emergency is over, there is usually a decrease in prejudice as a result of _____.
A.the friendly competition fostered by the emergency team leaders
B.increased contact and cooperation brought on by the superordinate goal
C.sharing the near-death experience
D.the scarcity of resources and abundance of problems

22. 2 The Holocaust, the massacre at My Lai, the Jonestown self-poisonings, and the California cult suicides in anticipation of the arrival of the Hale-Bopp comet are all examples of _____.
A.the influence of evil personalities
B.obedience to authority
C.normative social influence
D.reference group psychosis

23. 4 When you misjudge the causes of another person's behavior because you overestimate internal, personal factors and underestimate external, situational influences, you are engaged in _____.
A.delusional thinking
C.the fundamental attribution error
D.the self-serving bias

24. 1 A learned predisposition to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to a particular object is known as _____.
A.a belief
B.a concept
C.a schema
D.an attitude

25. 3 In Zimbardo's prison experiment, the majority of the subjects with the role of prisoner became _____.
D.manic depressive

26. 3 Zimbardo's simulation of prison life provided a dramatic demonstration of the power of _____ on behavior.

27. 1 A social influence technique in which a first, small request is used as a set-up for later requests is known as _____.
A.the low-ball technique
B.the foot-in-the-door technique
C.the infiltration technique

28. 3 Stanley Milgram was investigating _____ in his classic teacher-learner shock study.
A.the effects of punishment on learning
B.the effects of reinforcement on learning
C.obedience to authority
D.all of these options

29. 2 Which of the following will DECREASE obedience?
A.a command is given by a person with authority
B.commands start low and gradually increase
C.hold each person responsible for his or her own behavior
D.seeing others conform to obedience

30. 1 An intense feeling of attraction to another person that is characterized by high passion, obsessive thinking, and emotional fluctuation is known as _____.
B.need complementarity
C.need compatibility
D.romantic love

31. 4 "Handguns should be registered, and owners should be required to keep a trigger lock on them," is an example of which component of Charlton's attitude about guns?

32. 2 Amelia failed a test and said it was because the questions were "tricky;" Oscar passed the same test and said it was because he studied hard. Amelia is using _____; Oscar is using _____.
A.a dispositional locus of control; a situational locus of control
B.the fundamental attribution error; the self-serving bias
C.the self-serving bias; the self-serving bias
D.external self-efficacy; internal self-efficacy

33. 1 According to your text's definition, which of the following is a group?
A.twenty-five people riding together on a bus
B.ten people on a curb, waiting for the traffic light to change
C.five students sitting at various tables in the cafeteria
D.fifteen participants "conversing" in an internet chat room

34. 2 In patriarchal cultures, _____ is the most important attribute in a potential wife.
A.childbearing capability
B.intelligence or wisdom
C.physical beauty
D.a large dowry

35. 2 This is NOT an important element in Rubin's concept of loving.

36. 4 According to _____, aggression is an inborn impulse which is destructive and disruptive; according to _____ aggression prevents overcrowding and ensures survival of the fittest.
A.learning theorists; instinct theorists
B.Freud; ethologists
C.social psychologists; ecologists
D.personality theorists; biological psychologists

37. 2 Your text uses the story of Romeo and Juliet to illustrate how _____ can intensify romantic love.
A.youthful folly
C.unrealistic fantasies
D.delusions of love

38. 1 Obedience is BEST defined as following _____.
A.the lead of others
B.a direct command or order
C.group norms

39. 2 With regard to the norm for personal space, which of the following persons is MOST likely to break the norm in the United States by standing too close to an American adult?
A.a Scandinavian tourist
B.an American teenager
C.a Mediterranean guest
D.a violent prisoner

40. 2 Which of the following made it easier for American soldiers to kill Vietnamese civilians in the 1970s?
A.outgroup homogeneity
B.ingroup favoritism
C.homeostatic similarity
D.reciprocal dislike

41. 2 One explanation for why people commit the fundamental attribution error is _____.
A.the self-serving bias
B.the saliency bias
C.the obviousness bias

42. 4 The frustration-aggression hypothesis predicts that _____.
A.anyone who experiences frustration will feel an aggressive urge
B.if you get angry with someone you are likely to hurt that person
C.if a desired goal is blocked, you may hurt the person who blocks it, hurt someone else, or hurt yourself
D.aggression cannot occur in the absence of frustration

43. 2 Which of the following is NOT a situation in which groupthink can occur?
A.a military strategy session
B.a jury room
C.a couple planning to get married
D.groupthink can occur in all these situations

44. 2 Which of the following factors in Milgram's experiment INCREASED obedience?
A.the educational setting of the experiment and lab coats worn by experimenters
B.beginning with mild shocks and gradually increasing to maximal levels
C.assuring "teachers" that the experimenter was responsible for the "learner's" well-being
D.all of these options

45. 2 Amorita agrees to party with friends she admires rather than staying home to study because she doesn't want them to get angry with her. This is an example of _____.
A.the effect of low self-esteem on conformity
B.ingroup social influence
C.desirable social influence
D.how a reference group influences conformity

46. 4 Romantic love lasts _____.
A.forever, for a lucky few
B.for less than 6 months for most couples
C.for nearly 3 years in many cases
D.all of these options

47. 1 Statements that explain why people do what they do are called _____.

48. 4 Physiological studies have found a link between testosterone and serotonin levels and _____.
A.children who commit violent crimes
B.children who commit property crimes
C.children who commit both violent and property crimes
D.none of these options

49. 1 The set of normative expectations connected with people in a particular social position within a group is your text's definition of a _____.
A.normative reference
B.reference group norm

50. 4 Cognitive dissonance provokes a change in attitude due to _____.
A.rational discourse between the id, ego, and superego
B.irrational discourse between people with opposite attitudes
C.emotional thinking and reasoning
D.psychological tension produced by discrepant attitudes

51. 3 In the classic Sherif study, prejudice was initiated in two groups of boys at summer camp by encouraging _____, and successfully eliminated by creating _____.
A.ingroups; mixed groups
B.aggressive competition; friendly competition
C.competition; superordinate goals
D.passive cooperation; active cooperation

52. 4 Repeated exposure to a negative stimulus will _____.
A.increase attraction for that stimulus
B.decrease dislike for that stimulus
C.decrease attraction for that stimulus
D.have a variable effect, depending on the context

53. 3 According to Latane and Darley, in which of the following situations are you MOST likely to get help from bystanders?
A.in a room with one other person
B.on a bus with several strangers
C.in a busy campus restroom
D.on a well-traveled freeway

54. 1 In the _____, helping behavior is motivated by some anticipated gain.
A.empathy-altruism hypothesis
B.egoistic model
C.instinct theory
D.reciprocity model

55. 4 Violent behavior has been linked to low levels of _____.
A.serotonin and GABA
B.norepinephrine and epinephrine

56. 2 People engage in the fundamental attribution error because _____.
A.it is easier to blame people than "things"
B.people seem more conspicuously involved in the causes of things
C.situations seem more difficult to control or change compared to people
D.thoughts are more salient than behaviors

57. 2 Which of the following is FALSE regarding social behavior?
A."Looks" are the primary factor in our initial attraction to others.
B.Romantic love rarely lasts longer than a year or two.
C.There are positive as well as negative forms of prejudice.
D.The most effective way to change behavior is to first change attitude.

58. 1 A cognitive process in which members of an ingroup are viewed more positively than members of an outgroup is called _____.
A.reciprocity of liking
B.positive familiarity
C.ingroup favoritism
D.outgroup prejudice

59. 2 With regard to Ina's attitude toward her homeland of Greece, which of the following illustrates the affective component?
A."Greece is the best place on earth to live."
B."I feel much happier when I am at home in Greece."
C."I'm going back to Greece when this semester is over."
D.all of these options

60. 1 In the groupthink situation, the person who takes responsibility for seeing that dissenting opinions are not expressed is called the _____.

61. 4 Which of the following statements regarding the possible biological origins of aggression has NOT been supported by research?
A.The drive for aggression is a basic instinct that promotes survival.
B.Some people are genetically predisposed to have hostile temperaments and engage in aggressive acts.
C.The hypothalamus, amygdala, and other parts of the limbic system are implicated in aggression.
D.all of these options have been supported by research

62. 2 Kitty Genovese's neighbors failed to respond to her cries for help because of the _____ phenomenon.
B.egoistic model
C.inhumanity of large cities
D.diffusion of responsibility

63. 1 Negative behavior directed at members of a group is known as _____.

64. 4 Attribution _____.
A.explains how people use cognitive structures for exploring the world and explaining human behavior
B.describes the principles we use in explaining what caused a behavior
C.is usually unrelated to social perceptions
D.describes our predisposition toward others or things

65. 1 Which of the following is an example of a prejudice?
A.All blondes are dumb.
B.All men are strong.
C.All Asians are smart.
D.all of these options

66. 2 Which of the following persons is LEAST likely to list more positive than negative personal traits when asked to describe themselves?
A.Yuri, from Japan
B.Joy, from France
C.Truman, from England
D.Levi, from the United States

67. 2 Authority is most associated with which form of social influence?
D.reference group

68. 3 Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber have suggested there are three types of aggressive patterns. This is NOT one of them.

69. 1 A set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that is generalized to all group members is called a _____.
A.cognitive bias
B.cognitive resonance
C.negative schema

70. 4 Aggression research has shown a correlation between aggressive parents and a conflictual home atmosphere and _____.
A.children who commit violent crimes
B.children who commit property crimes
C.children who commit both violent and property crimes
D.none of these options

71. 1 Actions that are designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper are collectively known as _____.

72. 1 Prejudice is an attitude, and its cognitive component is called _____.
B.a stereotype
C.a cognitive bias
D.a negative schema

73. 2 For increased contact to diminish prejudice between two groups of people, which of the following factors MUST be present?
A.close interaction, interdependence, and equal status
B.superordinate goals and homogenous tasks
C.reciprocity of liking, equality, and friendly competition
D.positive experiences, close interdependence, and heterogeneous goals

74. 4 Sometimes people conform because they like and admire a group, and want to be liked back. This is the _____ explanation for conformity.
A.need for approval
B.reciprocity of liking
C.reference group

75. 2 A major factor in most forms of aggression is _____; however, research results are inconclusive regarding the influence of _____ on aggression.
A.testosterone levels; substance abuse
B.alcohol; testosterone levels
C.repressed anger; social norms
D.gender; learning

76. 4 Gender differences in aggression have been found in all EXCEPT this age group.
A.toddlerhood (under three years old)
B.preschool (three to four years old)
D.gender differences in aggression exist in all these age groups

77. 2 Which of the following was NOT listed as a symptom of groupthink in your text?
A.delusions of invulnerability
B.outgroup stereotypes
C.illusions of unanimity
D.self-censorship of dissent

78. 2 A stranger walking in front of you trips. You assume this is because he is clumsy, rather than considering the fact that the sidewalk might be uneven. You have just committed _____.
A.a high crime and misdemeanor
B.the fundamental attribution error
C.unkind thinking
D.a cardinal sin

79. 2 A constructive way to keep romantic love alive longer is through _____.
A.interference by others or situations that frustrate your desires
B.maintaining the mystery by holding back some information
C.nurturing it with flirting, flattery, and celebrations
D.all of these options

80. 1 A group's movement toward either riskier or more conservative behavior, depending on members' initial dominant tendency is called _____.
A.a risky shift
B.a cognitive reversal
C.group polarization

81. 2 A group is strongly cohesive and its members have a shared desire for agreement; the members should be alert to the dangers of this in their decision making.
A.group polarization
D.the "bandwagon" effect

82. 4 Research has consistently shown that physical attractiveness _____.
A.has little or no effect on interpersonal attraction
B.is one of the most important factors in liking
C.is associated with socioeconomic status
D.is the same for all cultures

83. 4 Whether a group's final decision is risky or conservative depends on _____.
A.the intellectual capacity of the group
B.the dominant preexisting tendencies of the group
C.the group's emotional intelligence
D.how many sensation-seekers there are in the group

84. 1 Prejudice is _____; discrimination is _____.
A.a behavior; a belief
B.unethical; illegal
C.an attitude; a behavior
D.innate; learned

85. 1 A cognitive process in which members of an outgroup are judged as less diverse than members of an ingroup is called _____.
A.the melting pot phenomenon
B.homeostatic similarity
C.the birds of a feather phenomenon
D.outgroup homogeneity

86. 2 Compared to couples who scored lower, couples who scored the highest on Rubin's measure of romantic love _____.
A.spent more time gazing into each other's eyes
B.stayed together longer
C.kissed in public more
D.touched and kissed in public more

87. 1 An example of an important norm in every culture has to do with the physical distance around each person that is considered an extension of that person. This area is called _____.
A.the invisible wall
B.the protective shield
C.personal space
D.the private domain

88. 1 An intense feeling of attraction to another person characterized by high passion, obsessive thinking, and emotional fluctuation defines _____.
A.the arousal phase
B.companionate love
C.romantic love
D.the sexual response cycle

89. 2 Which of the following is NOT required for groupthink to occur?
A.a strongly cohesive, isolated group
B.a directive leader who is not open to debate
C.a mindguard
D.a devil's advocate

90. 2 The two major attribution mistakes people make are _____.
A.the fundamental attribution error and self-serving bias
B.situational attributions and dispositional attributions
C.the actor bias and the observer bias
D.stereotypes and biases

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