1. 4 Which of the following is an example of the Zeigarnik effect?
A.A group of senior citizens is reminiscing about the old days.
B.You know a test answer, but are unable to recall it until the moment you turn the test in.
C.Fifteen-year-old Timmy suddenly recalls the name of the sixteenth president while playing with his Lincoln logs, even though he couldn't remember this when called on in class last week.
D.The smell of lavender brings back a chain of memories about your summer vacation in Idylwild three years ago.

2. 4 The biological process of _____ allows short-term memories to become long-term memories as a result of chemical and structural changes of the receiving neuron's dendrites, which increase their sensitivity to excitatory stimulation.
A.maintenance rehearsal
B.adrenaline activation
C.long-term potentiation
D.reverberating circuitry

3. 4 In Alzheimer's disease, the amount of _____ produced by brain tissue is decreased.
A.cerebrospinal fluid
B.hydrochloric acid

4. 1 _____ explains why people remember items from the beginning of a list; whereas as _____ explains why people remember items from the end of a list.
A.The Zeigarnik effect; the serial position effect
B.Photographic recall; state-dependency
C.A lack of interference; maintenance rehearsal
D.Distributed practice; massed practice

5. 2 Short-term memory receives information from _____ memory.
B.sensory and working
D.sensory and long-term

6. 2 Of the three memory stages, _____ has the greatest capacity, and _____ has the longest duration.
A.sensory memory; LTM
D.LTM; sensory memory

7. 1 The method of loci, peg-word system, substitute word system, and method of word association are all examples of _____.
A.ways students try to cheat on exams
B.mnemonic devices
C.eidetic imagery
D.a photographic memory

8. 4 The theory of _____ suggests that short-term memory is the result of a specific pattern of neurons firing over and over again.
A.short-term potentiation
B.reverberating circuits
C.maintenance rehearsal
D.repetitive activation

9. 2 Which of the following is the BEST method of determining whether a false or recovered memory is real?
A.Ask the person to answer questions under hypnosis.
B.Find external evidence that supports the facts of the memory.
C.Conduct a lie-detector test.
D.Ask a psychologist to conduct psychological testing using the Rorschach inkblot and Thematic Apperception tests.

10. 1 _____ refers to the initial storage of information received from the senses.
A.Perceptual memory
B.Short-term storage
C.Sensory memory
D.Working memory

11. 2 In a study of eyewitness testimony, _____ of the participants who observed a "crime in progress" identified innocent people from a group of mugshots an hour later, and _____ identified innocent people from a lineup a week later.
A.none; none
B.none; most
C.one fifth; less than 10 percent
D.most; none

12. 4 Cross-cultural studies suggest that memory recall for _____ is the same regardless of culture or schooling, while schooling improves memory recall for _____.
A.most recent information(recency effect); earliest information (primacy effect)
B.nonverbal information; verbal information
C.spatial tasks; logical tasks
D.episodic events; semantic knowledge

13. 4 Chunking enables a person to _____.
A.select contents from sensory memory
B.organize contents of STM
C.organize contents of LTM
D.use dual coding in sensory memory

14. 2 In the parallel process of memory, memory systems work _____ rather than _____.
A.in chunks; in whole parts
B.in synchrony; in stages
C.separately; together
D.all of these options

15. 4 Research on sleep and memory has found that you review, improve, and systematically catalogue recent additions to LTM during _____.
B.non-REM sleep stages
C.REM sleep stages
D.all of these options

16. 4 _____ devices improve memory organization by "tagging" information visually or verbally.
A.Eidetic imagery
C.Reverberating circuit

17. 2 In order to recall the number of lemons Matthew's mother told him to buy at the store, Matthew visualized a lemon attached to each letter of the word "buy." Matthew was using the process of _____ to remember to buy three lemons.
A.semantic coding
B.numeric rehearsal
C.maintenance rehearsal

18. 1 When new information interferes with the recall of previously learned information it is called _____ interference; when previously learned information interferes with the recall of new information it is called _____ interference.
A.new; prior
B.retroactive; proactive
C.retrograde; anterograde
D.neo-knowledge; previous-knowledge

19. 1 Juaquim is using three by five cards to help him recall facts for his biology exam tomorrow. His roommate is recalling the homecoming game from last weekend while listening to the radio. Juaquim is demonstrating the use of _____ memory; his roommate is demonstrating _____ memory.
A.semantic; episodic
B.factual; visual-auditory
C.factual; autobiographical
D.landmark; flashbulb

20. 2 June uses the _____ for remembering the order of the ossicles because she can see a mallet hitting a bun, a shoe sitting on an anvil, and a pair of stirrups hanging from a tree. James uses the _____ for remembering that the hippo-campus is in the limbic system by visualizing "a hippo in camp with us, sitting on a limb."
A.word association; peg word
B.peg word; word association
C.peg word; substitute word
D.substitute word; word association

21. 2 Yu-Wai just met a woman he feels attracted to. He keeps saying her name over and over to himself to make sure he doesn't forget it. Yu-Wai is using _____ to keep this woman's name in _____ memory.
A.mnemonics; long-term memory
B.a reverberating circuit; sensory memory
C.maintenance rehearsal; short-term memory
D.selective attention; short-term memory

22. 1 A flashbulb memory is one in which _____.
A.your camera malfunctioned and you have to rely on semantic recall
B.you were surrounded by paparazzi
C.you were blinded by someone's flashbulb and had to rely on other sensory information to form a memory
D.vivid images are associated with a surprising or strongly emotional event

23. 2 At a party for first-year college students, you are introduced to an interesting person whose name you hope you'll remember. Unfortunately, her name is followed by a rapid introduction to nearly 15 other students. According to memory research, you are _____ to remember her name because _____.
A.likely; she was interesting
B.unlikely; the rapid introductions served as an interference task
C.likely; the rapid introductions kept you from obsessing and getting anxious about your memory
D.unlikely; "hoping" indicates a lack of commitment on your part

24. 4 The _____ approach suggests that you will remember someone better if you pay more attention to their beliefs and hobbies rather than their gender and appearance.
A.levels of processing
B.episodic processing
C.semantic processing

25. 4 In sensory memory, the approximate duration of a visual image is _____, and the approximate duration of auditory stimulation is _____.
A.½ second; 4 seconds
B.1 second; 1 minute
C.4 seconds; ¼ second
D.½ minute; 4 minutes

26. 2 If during a French test in college, you remember some Spanish words you learned in high school, these previously learned words would be causing _____ interference.

27. 2 Sensory memory has a _____ capacity and a _____ duration.
A.large; short
B.large; long
C.small; short
D.small; long

28. 1 Eidetic imagery is _____.
A.the ability to store and retrieve clear and detailed pictures
B.visual imagery that lacks color
C.visual imagery that is a mirror image of the original stimuli
D.visual imagery that is confusing because several images are superimposed

29. 4 If the postulation that reverberating circuits are responsible for short-term memory is true, then _____ should interfere with the transfer of this information into long-term memory.
A.brain trauma from an accident
B.electrical shock applied to the brain to cause convulsions
D.all of these options

30. 4 Research on flashbulb memories has found that _____.
A.once a memory is stored in LTM, it is not changed
B.stored memories can be modified before or after consolidation
C.inferences or assumptions are not added to information with a strong emotional impact
D.if a memory is vivid, it is an accurate account of the original experience

31. 4 Facts are stored in _____.
A.sensory memory
C.semantic memory
D.episodic memory

32. 2 Which of the following statements about culture and memory is ACCURATE?
A.Culture affects both short-term and long-term memory.
B.Preliterate cultures recall orally presented stories better than literate cultures.
C.Both the recency and primacy effects strongly influence memory in all cultures, regardless of schooling.
D.all of these options

33. 1 In _____, you check the stimulus cue against your long-term memory contents to find a match; whereas in _____, you attempt to remember something from long-term memory without exposure to the cue.
A.recall; recognition
B.recognition; recall
C.essay questions; multiple choice questions
D.math questions; English questions

34. 1 Which of the following is a recognition test of memory?
A.remembering a name that goes with a face
B.a multiple choice test
C.an essay test
D.reciting the names of the state capitals

35. 4 There is some evidence that electroconvulsive shock therapy causes _____.
A.neurotransmitter insufficiency
B.damage to the hippocampus
C.Alzheimer's disease
D.retrograde amnesia

36. 1 A relatively permanent change in the structure of dendrites and their sensitivity to excitatory stimulation that transfers STM into LTM is called _____.
A.long-term potentiation
B.an excitatory post-synaptic potential
C.reverberating circuits
D.the process of neuron transformation

37. 2 Luana suffers from _____ amnesia because she cannot remember anything that happened just prior to her car accident even though the rest of her memory continues to function properly. Kelsey suffers from _____ amnesia because he had brain surgery which left his long-term memory intact, but prevents him from learning anything new.
A.proactive; retroactive
B.retrograde; anterograde
C.retroactive; retrograde
D.anterograde; proactive

38. 4 The neurotransmitter _____ and _____ enzymes are associated with the process of converting short-term memories into long-term ones.
A.acetylcholine; kinase
B.epinephrine; monoamine
C.serotonin; extracellular
D.adrenaline; oxidizing

39. 2 Which of the following is NOT a visually organized mnemonic device?
A.the method of loci
B.the peg-word system
C.the substitute word system
D.the method of word association

40. 2 Araminta can reminisce for hours about her life in the mid-1900s, but has difficulty recalling the names of her newest great-grandchildren. This may be because of _____.
A.retrograde amnesia
B.proactive interference
C.Alzheimer's Disease
D.none of these options

41. 2 When Angela reads, visual images of previous experiences flood her mind; she also has difficulty discriminating between important and unimportant sensory stimuli. Angela is MOST likely "suffering" from _____.
A.the "rainman" syndrome
B.mnemonic overload
C.eidetic imagery
D.the growth of amyloid protein plaques in her brain

42. 2 Based on REM sleep research, if you play an audio tape of your history class while you sleep you are most likely to remember _____ of the tape.
A.nearly 100 percent
B.75 to 95 percent
C.10 to 50 percent

43. 2 Nanette highlights the margin-definition of terms in her psychology textbook; Nathan thinks about how each term applies to his own life or to other concepts in the chapter. Nathan is more likely to recall and use the terms better on an essay exam because _____.
A.he used dual-coding and Nanette did not
B.Nanette obviously isn't interested in psychology
C.he used maintenance rehearsal and Nanette did not
D.he processed the terms at a deeper level than did Nanette

44. 4 Research on the accuracy of long-term memory suggests that Talya is MOST likely to _____.
A.recall the exact wording of a sentence if tested within 30 seconds after reading it
B.recall the exact wording of a sentence if tested after 30 seconds and without rehearsal
C.identify a sentence with the same meaning (but not the same words) if tested within 30 seconds
D.identify a sentence with the same meaning (but not the same words) if tested after 30 seconds and without rehearsal

45. 2 Which of the following statements is FALSE with regard to false and repressed memories?
A.Most people who witness violent crime or who are victims of traumatic abuse have trouble forgetting the event.
B.Memories of childhood abuse or trauma are frequently buried in the unconscious for many years and recovered later in life.
C.It is possible to construct convincing false memories of events that never happened.
D.all of these options

46. 4 Electroconvulsive shock prevents _____.
A.the operation of sensory memory
B.selection of information from sensory memory
C.transfer of information from STM to LTM
D.retrograde amnesia

47. 1 A progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss that occurs most commonly in the elderly is called _____.
C.Alzheimer's disease
D.age-related amnesia

48. 3 According to Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve, _____.
A.forgetting is initially rapid, then slows
B.forgetting is initially slow, then speeds
C.forgetting occurs at a steady rate over time
D.forgetting occurs rapidly in children and older adults, but slower in young adults

49. 1 _____ are important life events that help us locate other events in episodic memory.
A.Event markers
B.Episode tags
C.Retrieval cues
D.Landmark events

50. 1 The process of returning LTM contents to STM for analysis or awareness is called _____.

51. 4 According to research, the level of confidence eyewitnesses have about what they saw is often negatively correlated with _____.
A.the inaccuracy of their report
B.the accuracy of their report
C.another eyewitness's accounts
D.another eyewitness's confidence level

52. 1 When brain injury due to physical or psychological trauma results in forgetting, it is called _____.
A.motivated forgetting
B.retrieval failure
D.Alzheimer's disease

53. 1 The serial position effect suggests that people will remember _____ items better than _____ items on a list.
A.middle and end; beginning
B.beginning and end; middle
C.beginning; middle or end
D.end; middle or beginning

54. 1 When taking an exam, students often do better with items taken from the first and last of the chapters covered by the exam. This demonstrates the _____.
A.superiority of distributed practice
B.Zeigarnik effect
C.state-dependent effect
D.serial position effect

55. 4 Which of the following has NOT been identified as a possible cause of Alzheimer's disease?
B.a slow-acting virus
C.the accumulation of amyloid protein in the brain
D.the degenerative effects of unidentified toxins in the environment

56. 1 _____ is the process of grouping information into units in order to store more information in _____.
A.Chunking; short-term memory
B.Cheating; your wallet or purse
C.Collecting; long-term memory
D.Dual-coding; sensory memory

57. 2 The selective attention process occurs during the _____ stage of memory processing.
D.all of these options

58. 1 The process of repeating the contents of short-term memory over and over to keep it there is called _____.
A.rote memorization
B.mnemonic memory
C.a reverberating circuit
D.maintenance rehearsal

59. 2 When recalling his childhood, Grandpa often says, "That was before the Frisco Quake," or "That was after the Frisco Quake." Gramps is using _____ to improve his _____ memory.
A.redintegration; semantic
B.a landmark event; episodic
C.a retrieval cue; flashbulb
D.an acquired cue; short-term

60. 4 Which of the following is a source of long-term memory error?
A.assumptions you make when taking in new information
B.the inability to recall the dependability of the source for old information
C.interference caused by new information
D.all of these options

61. 2 Eugenia is 74 years old and does not recognize her son. She is MOST likely suffering from _____.
A.Huntington's chorea
B.Alzheimer's disease
C.motivated forgetting
D.Parkinson's disease

62. 2 If you study in an environment that keeps you relaxed but alert, state-dependent memory suggests you will do best on a test of that information if you _____.
A.drink lots of coffee before the test
B.use ear plugs during the test
C.study your notes just before the test
D.get adequate rest the night before, and take deep breaths during the test

63. 2 Varian cannot remember what his wife told him to pick up at the store earlier today because he was composing office inventory lists at work all day. This is an example of _____.
A.motivated forgetting
B.proactive interference
C.retroactive interference
D.temporary amnesia

64. 1 Circuits of neurons that fire over and over to process a memory are called _____.
A.reverberating circuits
B.coding sequences
C.electrically active units
D.consolidation pathways

65. 1 Your ability to vividly recall what you were doing when you heard about the attack on the World Trade Center towers on 9/11/01 is an example of _____.
A.a flashbulb memory
B.the Zeigarnik effect
C.a memory flashback
D.your lack of a real life

66. 2 In answering this question, the correct multiple choice option may serve as a _____ for retrieving accurate information from your long-term memory.
C.both of these options
D.none of these options

67. 4 Which of the following is FALSE regarding Alzheimer's disease?
A.The cerebral cortex shrinks in size.
B.Neurons in the nucleus basalis in the brain stem are damaged.
C.Production of acetylcholine is greatly diminished.
D.Semantic memory is affected more than episodic memory.

68. 1 Jiang found it easy to remember the colors of the light spectrum once he learned to think of the name, "Roy B. Biv." Jiang has learned to use the mnemonic device called the _____.
A.method of word association
B.peg word system
C.substitute word system
D.method of name association

69. 2 In the three-stage memory model, which of the following is the CORRECT memory pathway?
A.sensory memory ® STM ® LTM
B.STM ® LTM ® perceptual memory
C.sensory memory ® perceptual memory ® working memory
D.sensory memory ® STM ® LTM ® perceptual memory

70. 4 Landmark events enable us to locate information in _____.
A.semantic memory
B.episodic memory
C.sensory memory

71. 1 Redintegration occurs when _____.
A.you forget everything because of high levels of anxiety
B.something unlocks a rapid chain of memories
C.you stop thinking about a problem and an answer suddenly appears
D.something from long-term memory returns to short-term memory for processing

72. 2 Miguel has an average memory capacity. Which of the following lists is he MOST likely to forget?
B.Kathy, Katie, Karen, Kim, Kandi, Kevin, Keith
C.123, 456, 789, 987, 654, 321

73. 4 Visual and verbal coding occurs in the _____ stage, and is called the _____ system.
A.LTM; optical-auditory
B.sensory memory; sensory
C.perceptual memory; sensory
D.STM; dual-coding

74. 4 What conclusion can be drawn from cross-cultural studies of memory?
A.People in all cultures demonstrate the same memory abilities.
B.Culture provides experiences and strategies that improve memory for culturally-relevant information.
C.People in preliterate cultures have fewer memory strategies than people in literate cultures.
D.Many cultures do not consider memory to be an important mental function.

75. 2 When you swallow the last bite of a divine piece of chocolate and continue to experience the delightful taste for a few more seconds, you are utilizing your _____.
A.hedonistic nature
B.mnemonic devices
C.sensory memory system
D.imaginary sensory system

76. 2 One way to assess relearning is to test how long it takes to _____ the original information.
D.all of these options

77. 1 An interference task prevents _____.
A.maintenance rehearsal
B.transference of information into long-term memory
C.both of these options
D.none of these options

78. 1 _____ memories are believed to be real even though the events never occurred, whereas _____ memories are related to traumas that are buried in the unconscious.
A.Supernatural; suppressed
B.Flashbulb; flashback
C.Invented; dissociative
D.False; repressed

79. 1 The process of working unconsciously on a problem until it is solved is called _____.
A.the Barnum effect
C.latent learning
D.the Zeigarnik effect

80. 4 _____ theory suggests that memory is like any other biological process that deteriorates over time, whereas _____ theory suggests that people block memories that could cause pain, threat, or embarrassment.
A.Deterioration; blockage
B.Biological forgetting; interference
C.Decay; motivated forgetting
D.none of these options

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