1. 1 Procrastination, stubbornness, and intentional inefficiency are examples of _____.
A.negative punishment
B.negative reinforcement
C.passive aggressiveness
D.social learning

2. 1 An effect that decreases the probability or frequency of the response that follows is _____.
A.a negative operant
C.negative reinforcement
D.a discriminative stimulus

3. 2 Which of the following pairs occur in higher order conditioning?
C.NS—previous CS

4. 4 Observational learning combines elements from _____.
A.classical and operant conditioning
B.conditioning and cognitive learning
C.conditioning and latent learning
D.latent learning and cognitive learning

5. 2 Slot machines use a variable ratio because _____.
A.the gambler won't be able to tell when the next pay off is going to occur
B.it increases the gambler's resistance to quitting
C.the gambler will fear that the next player will hit the jackpot if he quits now
D.all of these options

6. 1 For most people, money and praise are _____ reinforcers

7. 2 Innate behaviors _____.
A.are learned in early infancy or not at all
B.include reflexes and instincts
C.always appear at birth
D.none of these options

8. 2 Higher order conditioning occurs when a(n) _____.
A.previously neutral stimulus elicits a conditioned response
B.neutral stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus
C.neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus
D.unconditioned response is paired with a conditioned stimulus

9. 2 Which of the following is an example of innate behavior?
A.a baby whose cheek is touched, turns toward the touch with mouth open
B.a dog paddles to safety when thrown into deep water
C.both of these options
D.none of these options

10. 2 Mr. Jakowski wants his son to take out the trash without being told. The best way for him to do this would be to reward his son on a _____ schedule of reinforcement at first, then change to a _____ schedule.
A.fixed; variable
B.continuous; partial
C.ratio; interval
D.none of these options

11. 2 Learned helplessness may be associated with _____, which is a state of physical or emotional exhaustion that is experienced in a job that provides little reinforcement or control.
A.worker's compensation

12. 2 If you reinforce your dog for sitting by giving him a treat every third time he sits, you are using a _____.
A.continuous schedule of reinforcement
B.random ratio reinforcement schedule
C.fixed interval reinforcement schedule
D.fixed ratio reinforcement schedule

13. 2 An external stimulus that does not ordinarily cause a reflex response or an emotional response is a(n) _____, whereas any stimulus that causes a reflex or emotional response without any learning is a(n) _____.
A.inhibitory stimulus; instinctive response
B.neutral stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
C.classical stimulus; operant stimulus
D.punishing stimulus; rewarding stimulus

14. 1 A sudden flash of understanding that occurs when you are trying to solve a problem is called a(n) _____.
D.cognitive awakening

15. 4 Using PET scans, researchers have found that during classical conditioning _____.
A.right frontal lobe areas are activated
B.the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and cortex are activated
C.both of these options
D.none of these options

16. 1 The reappearance of a previously extinguished response is called _____.
A.a flashback
B.immediate recall
C.spontaneous recovery
D.sudden recall

17. 1 In operant conditioning, generalization refers to ____.
A.responding in the same way to cues that have similar characteristics
B.responding in a variety of ways to cues that have similar characteristics
C.both of these options
D.none of these options

18. 1 An event that increases the probability that a response will be repeated is called _____.
A.a positive operation
C.an operational directive
D.a discriminative stimulus

19. 3 The chimpanzee in Kohler's insight experiment _____.
A.used trial-and-error to reach a banana placed just out of reach
B.turned its back on the banana out of frustration
C.sat for a while, then used a stick to bring the banana within reach
D.didn't like bananas

20. 1 _____ is a severe, irrational fear of an object or situation, which may sometimes be thought of as a(n) _____.
A.A nightmare; conditioned dream response
B.An anxiety attack; immature response
C.A phobia; conditioned emotional response
D.Anxiety; unconditional expressive response

21. 1 A tendency to respond in the same way to stimuli that have similar characteristics is called _____.
B.compulsive behavior
D.recurring responsiveness

22. 2 Researchers have found that the relationship between punishment and aggression is _____.
A.clear and direct in both animals and human beings
B.clear and direct in animals, but more complicated in human beings
C.complicated in both animals and human beings
D.clear and direct in some instances, complicated in others, for both animals and human beings

23. 2 Based on the principle of reinforcement, if you give your dog a dog-biscuit to get him to stop barking, it is MOST likely that your dog will bark _____ in the future, and you will give him a biscuit _____.
A.more often; more often
B.less often; less often
C.more often; less often
D.less often; more often

24. 4 In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when the _____.
A.conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned response
B.conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
C.conditioned response is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
D.unconditioned stimulus is ambiguous

25. 1 A process in which you learn to differentiate a target stimulus from others that are similar, due to pairings of only the target stimulus with the UCS, is called _____.
B.critical thinking

26. 1 For most organisms, food is a _____ reinforcer
A.negative and secondary
B.positive and secondary
C.negative and primary
D.positive and primary

27. 2 Two-year-old Rumiko started whining at the grocery store. The best way for her parents to extinguish this behavior is to praise her _____ when she is NOT whining at the store and leave the store _____.
A.consistently; every time she whines
B.most of the time; every other time she whines
C.some of the time; when they are done shopping
D.none of these options; they should stop taking her to the store

28. 2 A neutral stimulus that, through conditioning, produces a reflexive response is now called a(n) _____.
A.conditioned stimulus
B.primary reinforcer
C.secondary reinforcer
D.classical stimulus

29. 1 Primary reinforcers _____.
A.do not need to be learned
B.usually satisfy a biological need
C.increase the probability of a response
D.all of these options

30. 2 Ten days in a row Frank felt a static electric shock when he kissed his wife on the living room carpet. Now he feels mildly anxious whenever he approaches his wife to kiss her. In classical conditioning, his wife was a(n) _____ stimulus ten days ago, and has now become a(n) _____ stimulus.
A.unconditioned; conditioned
B.unconditioned; neutral
C.neutral; unconditioned
D.neutral; conditioned

31. 4 Learning _____.
A.is permanent
B.requires performance of a behavior
C.may consist of changes that could potentially be initiated, but never are
D.all of these options

32. 2 George gets paid on Fridays for a week's work; Mai-ling gets paid for every five wedding veils she completes. George is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement, while Mai-ling is on a _____ schedule.
A.fixed ratio; average interval
B.average ratio; variable ratio
C.average interval; variable interval
D.fixed interval; fixed ratio

33. 3 Recall John Watson's classical conditioning of little Albert. If you wanted to use higher order conditioning to get little Albert to fear Barbie dolls, you would show him a Barbie doll with _____.
A.a loud noise
B.a loud noise AND the white rat
C.the white rat
D.no head

34. 3 Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched with regard to John Watson's classical conditioning of little Albert?
A.NS: white rat; CS: white rat
B.UCR: loud noise
C.UCR: tears due to loud noise; CR: tears due to white rat
D.none of these options are incorrectly matched

35. 2 When a teacher uses a fixed interval schedule for quizzes (e.g., every Friday), this usually encourages students to _____.
A.avoid studying until the last minute
B.avoid class on Friday
D.dislike the teacher

36. 2 If your dog was classically conditioned to wag his tail when you pick up a leash to go for a walk, what would extinguish this behavior?
A.Take him for a walk without his leash.
B.Pick up the leash without taking him for a walk.
C.Use operant conditioning to teach him to recognize the word walk.
D.Forget it, you cannot extinguish this behavior.

37. 2 In order for reinforcement or punishment to be effective, it must come _____.
A.before the behavior
B.after the behavior
C.after the unconditioned stimulus
D.before the unconditioned stimulus

38. 2 Secondary reinforcers _____
A.are based on prior learning of their reinforcing properties
B.are less reinforcing than primary reinforcers
C.lose their reinforcing value over time
D.all of these options

39. 4 Behavior that is affected by maturation only, and not by practice is _____.
A.classically conditioned
B.operantly conditioned
D.learned via modeling

40. 1 _____ is a teaching technique that combines shaping and modeling to help a person learn complicated tasks.
A.Programmed instruction
B.Operant-observational learning
D.Vicarious observation

41. 2 The two major types of learning are _____, which is used to acquire skills or habits, and _____, which is used to acquire knowledge and information.
A.conditioning; observational
B.observational; cognitive
C.conditioning; cognitive
D.procedural; associative

42. 4 Superstitious behavior occurs because _____.
A.it has been reinforced on a fixed ratio schedule
B.a person or an animal thinks the behavior causes a reinforcer when in reality the behavior and the reinforcement are not connected
C.it is reinforced on a random ratio schedule
D.the behavior and the reinforcement come in close proximity to one another, causing the superstitious behavior to increase in magnitude

43. 1 When someone reinforces a series of successive steps that lead to a desired response, they are engaged in _____ a behavior.
A.the continuous reinforcement of

44. 2 You watched your favorite movie star driving a red sports utility vehicle (SUV) in fifteen television commercials last week. Each time you saw this star you experienced pleasurable feelings. This week, when you see the SUV on the road, you experience the same pleasurable feelings. In this example, the NS is the _____, the UCS is _____, and the UCR is your pleasurable feelings _____.
A.the movie star; the SUV; during the commercial
B.the movie star; the SUV; on the road this week
C.the SUV; the movie star; during the commercial
D.the television commercial; the SUV; during the commercial

45. 1 The process of rewarding successive approximations of the desired behavior is called _____.

46. 3 Albert Bandura's social learning theory places a lot of emphasis on _____.
A.classical conditioning
B.operant conditioning

47. 2 Wartime propaganda often depicts the enemy as ugly, cruel, and somewhat less than human. This type of propaganda creates _____ toward the enemy.
A.a negative conditioned emotional response
B.a negative social learning environment
C.positive punishment
D.unconditional negative regard

48. 2 Withdrawal, apathy, and severe depression may be due to _____.
A.learned helplessness
B.a submissive personality disorder
D.negative reinforcement

49. 2 Which of the following is NOT a part of the scaffolding process of learning?
A.The scaffold is the same for all learners at the beginning.
B.The amount of scaffolding and intervention by the teacher decreases as the learner's skills increase.
C.Scaffolding always involves shaping and modeling.
D.The teacher is often unaware that he or she is engaged in teaching.

50. 2 A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential as a result of practice or experience is called _____.

51. 2 Five-year-old Nicholas just learned the rhyme, "Step on a crack, break your mother's back." His mother won't let him eat the candy bar his grandmother just gave him until after dinner. Nicholas waves goodbye to grandma, while stepping on all the cracks in his driveway. This may be an example of _____.
A.delayed aggression
B.a hypoglycemic aggressive response
C.passive aggressiveness
D.an Oedipal response

52. 2 Escape learning may occur when you are _____ for escaping an aversive situation; whereas avoidance learning may occur when you are _____ for avoiding a potential aversive situation.
A.negatively reinforced; punished
B.punished; negatively reinforced
C.punished; punished
D.negatively reinforced; negatively reinforced

53. 2 You clap with delight when your young son picks up a spoon. You laugh and applaud when he later brings the spoon toward his mouth. When he places the spoon in his mouth you hug and kiss him all over. It is MOST likely that you _____.
A.haven't got a life
B.are a first-time dad (or mom)
C.are having a nervous breakdown
D.are using shaping to teach your son to eat with spoon

54. 2 When your mouth waters at just the mention of chocolate cake, it is an example of _____.
A.operant conditioning
B.social learning
C.vicarious conditioning
D.classical conditioning

55. 3 Cognitive psychologists such as Wolfgang Kohler, think of the learner as a(n) _____.
A.tabula rasa
B.blank slate
C.information processing system
D.mental associationist

56. 2 In operant conditioning, a young man who initially buys any brand of jogging shoes is demonstrating the principle of _____, but when he buys only Brand X because they fit better, he is demonstrating _____.
A.buyer's remorse; smart shopping
B.successive approximations; shaping
C.classical conditioning; vicarious conditioning
D.generalization; discrimination

57. 4 Partial reinforcement is "better" than continuous reinforcement when it comes to _____.
A.initial learning of a behavior
B.spontaneous recovery
C.resistance to extinction
D.none of these options

58. 2 A schedule of reinforcement in which the period of time varies from one reinforcement to the next is called a _____ schedule, and is best for producing _____ responses.
A.mixed interval; haphazard
B.variable interval; slow and steady
C.rotating interval; repetitious
D.variable ratio; slow and steady

59. 2 Suppose a boy learns to fear bees by being stung when he picks a flower. In this situation the unconditioned stimulus is the _____.

60. 1 A program that designates intervals at which a response is reinforced is called a _____.
A.schedule of reinforcement
B.reinforcement calendar
C.reinforcement timetable
D.none of these options

61. 2 After watching Nightmare on Elm Street, you are terrified of driving down the Elm Street near your home. This is an example of _____.
B.vicarious conditioning
C.latent learning
D.all of these options

62. 1 A behavior that is repeated because it is thought to cause a desired effect, even when there is no connection between the behavior and the effect is called _____.

63. 1 A Skinner box is the name for the _____.
A.laboratory used by B.F. Skinner
B.burial caskets for dead laboratory animals
C.prison cell reserved for students who fail this exam
D.apparatus used to study the effects of reinforcement on animal behavior

64. 2 Someone who responds very little at the beginning of a time period, then responds more rapidly near the end of that period is MOST likely to be on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
A.continuous interval
B.continuous ratio
C.variable ratio
D.fixed interval

65. 2 Which of the following is NOT observational learning?
A.reading a "how-to" book
B.trying a succession of attempts to solve a problem
C.receiving direct instruction
D.watching someone else

66. 1 The BEST definition of a cognitive map is _____.
A.a map that you describe using words rather than drawings
B.a mental image of an area that a person or animal has previously navigated
C.neuronal pathways produced when you think or learn something new
D.a method of studying that maps your thoughts in a logical manner

67. 2 Which of the following develops gradually during the course of conditioning?

68. 2 Professor Miller gives a quiz once a week; but he never tells students on what day the quiz will be given. This is a _____ schedule.
A.fixed ratio
B.variable ratio
C.fixed interval
D.variable interval

69. 2 Learning a response to a neutral stimulus when it is paired with a stimulus that causes a reflex response is called _____ conditioning; whereas learning that occurs when a response to an environmental cue is reinforced is called _____ conditioning.
A.reflex; reinforcement
B.operational; complex
C.classical; operant
D.basic; complex

70. 3 In Pavlov's original classical conditioning experiments, the _____ was the neutral stimulus, the _____ was the stimulus that would elicit a reflex, and _____ was the reflexive response.
A.meat powder; bell; salivation
B.salivation; meat powder; ringing the bell
C.bell; meat powder; salivation
D.meat powder; salivation; ringing the bell

71. 2 The BEST method parents can use to get their children to do their chores is to _____.
A.punish them if they refuse
B.reward them before they do the chores
C.reward them after they do the chores
D.do the chores for them at first, so they can observe a model

72. 1 The theory that proposes that people learn various behaviors by observing others who serve as models is called _____.
A.social learning theory
B.social cognitive theory
C.observational learning
D.all of these options

73. 2 The addition of a(n) _____ stimulus results in positive reinforcement; whereas the subtraction of a(n) _____ stimulus results in negative reinforcement.
A.desirable; painful or annoying
B.primary; secondary
C.operant; classical
D.higher order; lower order

74. 2 The learning of an association between an external stimulus and a response is known as _____.
B.contiguity learning
D.latent learning

75. 3 Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A.Pavlov: classical conditioning
B.Thorndike: law of effect
C.Skinner: reinforcement
D.none of these options are incorrectly matched

76. 2 ___ occurs when neither the CS nor UCS has been presented for a long time; whereas _____ occurs when the CS is presented without the UCS, and usually takes less time.
A.Unlearning; forgetting
B.Forgetting; extinction
C.Extinction; unlearning
D.Forgetting; deconditioning

77. 4 A procedure in which people's biological functions are monitored and the results are made known to them so they can learn to control these functions is known as _____.
A.programmed instruction
C.biological monitoring
D.the law of effect

78. 4 A teacher who reinforces successive approximations of a behavior and models more difficult parts of the behavior is using _____.
A.programmed instruction
B.operant-observational learning
D.vicarious observation

79. 4 Continuous reinforcement occurs when every response is reinforced, and is "better" than partial reinforcement when it comes to _____.
A.resistance to extinction
B.resistance to forgetting
C.initial learning of a behavior
D.initial learning of a behavior and resistance to extinction

80. 4 Functional MRI scans used during the reading of neutral words, or threat-related words (that had been previously conditioned) demonstrated that _____.
A.threat words and neutral words activated the same brain areas
B.threat words activated many more brain areas than neutral words
C.threat words activated a different part of the cortex than neutral words
D.none of these options

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